APPENDIX A: BACKGROUND TO EVENT TOURISM

The broad division of tourism into the two sectors of business tourism and leisure tourism as shows Figure 1 (Rogers, 2003; Davidson 1994; Davidson & Beulah, 2003) becomes blurred and it is not clear-cut.

figure_A1.jpg










Figure A1. A broad division of tourism and business tourism Diego (2006) according to Rogers (2003)

BUSINESS TOURISM

    “The World Tourism Organization’s (WTO) official definition of tourism, suggests that people travelling for business or professional purposes can also be considered tourists” World Tourism Organization (1993) quoted in Davidson & Beulah (2003)

Tony Rogers goes on to report that “business tourism and leisure tourism rely on the same, or a very similar, infrastructure to take place successfully’ (Rogers, 2003 p.22). Both sectors need accommodation; transport and communications; leisure, cultural and entertainment assets; shopping areas; information and advisory services; emergency medical services; a safe and secure environment, etc. Furthermore, “business tourism, in particular, can involve a substantial leisure element” (Davidson 1994 quoted in Rogers 2003 p.22).

For this reason, bidding destinations sell the concept of ‘destination’ and place great emphasis on everything from leisure, cultural and entertainment assets, to shopping, sports and dining options (Rogers, 2003 p.22). To quote Rogers (2003) himself:

    “A business tourist is a traveller whose main purpose for travelling is to attend an activity or event associated with his/her business or interests”
 (p. 20)
    “Conferences, exhibitions and trade fairs, incentive travel and corporate events (sometimes referred as corporate hospitality) are the four business tourism sectors that are the prime focus of marketing activities by venues and destinations because decisions about where the events take place are open to influence” (p. 20)

The above argument is also supported by Davidson & Beulah (2003 p.4). The organizers of the event may have great flexibility in deciding where it is to be held, and are able to use their own judgment or discretion. For this reason, these four business tourism sectors are sometimes described as discretionary (Rogers 2003 p. 20; Davidson & Beulah, 2003 p.4)

CULTURAL TOURISM

    “Existing tourism literature provides a wide range of definitions in the field of cultural tourism, but there is no consensus” Pechlaner & Abfalter (2005, p.42)

The World Tourism Organization has provided a definition of cultural tourism, focussing on the travel motivations of tourist:

    “Cultural tourism includes movements of persons for essentially cultural motivations such as study tours, performing arts and other cultural events, visit to sites and monuments, travel to study nature, folklore or art pilgrimages” World Tourism Organization (1985, p.3) quoted in Christou (2005, p. 7)

Likewise, the European Association for Tourism and Leisure Studies (ATLAS) has suggested a working definition of Cultural tourism, in two parts:

    Conceptual definition: “The movement of persons to cultural attractions away from their normal place of residence, with the intention to gather new information and experiences to satisfy their cultural needs”
    Technical definition: “All movements of persons to specific cultural attractions, such as heritage sites, artistic and cultural manifestations, arts and drama outside their normal place of residence”

ATLAS quoted in McDonnell & Burton (2005, p.17) and Richards (1996, p.24)