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ABSTRACT

This thesis explores Team building events as Event Tourism resources or existing tourism attractions. Team building events are defined in this thesis as “training events that often involve engaging in Experiential learning, or learning by doing with reflection, which is intensified by the use of a wide variety of indoor and outdoor leisure and entertainment activities, incentives, competitions, and challenges with the major purpose of increasing team effectiveness”. Team building events may take place in different venues, settings and destinations.
The research methodology aimed to draw attention to the voice of organizers, participants and consumer organizations of Team building events in the UK. Data was collected in semi-structured interviews, coded, categorized and analyzed to bring out key issues and opinions of the participants. The steps taken in the analysis of information led up to build a conceptual framework based on the perceptions of those involved in the study. The approach was informed by the methodology of grounded theory. Having constructed a theory i.e. conceptual framework grounded in the perceptions of those involved in the research, this was compared against relevant literature.
The judgment of the theory generated against the literature showed the value of Team building events as Event Tourism resources. A number of agencies within the Event Tourism industry were identified and the underlying rational for those to support the development of Team building events for tourism consumption was stated. As applied research, the study addressed practical needs and produced recommendations in the light of the literature and the findings in order to illuminate the development and marketing processes of Team building events for tourism consumption. Issues and recommendations on how Team building events may contribute to a sustainable development of the tourism industry were equally observed.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


I would like to thank a number of people who have helped me to complete this project. Hermi my mother, for her love and the freedom she always gave me; Fernando my father, for his encouragement and everlasting faith in his son; Verity, my love, whose bright mind and sweet heart accompanied me all along the way; Heather Robson, my long distance supervisor who has been enthusiastic, as always, and helped me to find my way throughout the journey; and Celia Hawson, for proof reading the study with a smile.
Special thanks must go to participants of the research without whom I would have nothing but fog and assumptions; and the beautiful island of Menorca, which gave inspiration throughout the hot summer of 2006.



TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT   
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS   
WORD COUNT SUMMARY  
TABLE OF CONTENTS  
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS & ABBREVIATIONS  


CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION   
Context of the Study  
Generalizing  
Research questions  
Research aims and objectives   
Aims   
Objectives   

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW   
Introduction   
Theme 1: Events   
Theme 2: Event Tourism   
Introduction   
Event Tourism resource and supply appraisal   
Event Tourism planning for destinations   
Generic strategies for Event Tourism   
Situational analysis:  SWOT & Portfolio Analyses   
Development of an Event Tourism strategy   
Implementation of an Event Tourism strategy: policy   
Tourism seasonality problems   
Events as image makers   
Size of events and attractiveness   
Sustainable Development through Quality Tourism   
The benefits of business tourism   
   Greater profitability   
   All-year-round activity   
The Business travel and pleasure interface   
Incentive Travel   
Theme 3: Team building   
Theme 4: Experiential learning   
Reviewing and transfer   

CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY   
Chapter overview   
Research Design   
Grounded theory study   
The justification of a Grounded theory study   
Experiential Learning based Training & Development programmes   
Experiential learning  body of knowledge   
Data Collection Method   
Sampling   
Data Analysis Methods   
Trustworthiness of the study   
Reliability   
Researcher bias   
Validity   
Limitations and ethical considerations of the study   
Limitations of the study   
Ethical considerations of the study   

CHAPTER 4: FINDINGS   
Introduction   
Category 1: Typology and nature of Team Building Events
Profile of Team building events   
Length of the event and event demand periods   
Activities for Team building events   
Learning models used for Team building events   
Category 2: Team building event participants & consumer organizations   
Client and participant profiles   
Client/Organizational needs   
Increase team effectiveness   
Organizational internal communication needs   
Organizational leisure needs   
Networking and socialising needs   
Employee rewarding needs  
Employee incentive needs   
Client and participant demands   
Category 3: Team building events & the Event Tourism industry   
The connection with the MICE industry   
Relevant issues in consumer behaviour   

CHAPTER 5: DISCUSSION   
Introduction  
The value of Team building events as Event Tourism resources   
Capacity to assist in overcoming seasonality problems   
Capacity to attract overnight stays & increase the length of stay   
Capacity of delivering economic benefits and job creation   
Capacity to assist in shaping destination’s image and attract future inward investment   
Potential stakeholders of Team building events within the Event Tourism industry   
Intermediaries working on behalf of buyers   
Professional Conference Organisers (PCOs)   
Incentive Travel Houses   
Destination Management Companies (DMCs)   
Intermediaries working on behalf of suppliers   
Destination Marketing Organizations (DMO)   
National tourist organizations (NTOs)   
Recommendations   
Event marketing   
Introduction   
Marketing policy   
Touring packages   
Implications for the Team Building Events market   
Event development   
Briefs & budgets   
Venue & destination   
Unique experiences   
The leisure factor   
Event themes for tourism consumption   
Sustainable development through Quality tourism   

CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSIONS   
Implications and applications of the study   
The last word   

BIBLIOGRAPHY   
APPENDIX   


Appendix A: Background to Event Tourism   
Business tourism   
Cultural tourism   
Appendix B: Agencies and Intermediaries in the Event Tourism industry   
Introduction   
Intermediaries working on behalf of buyers   
Professional Conference Organizers (PCOs)   
Destination Management Companies (DMCs)   
Incentive Travel Houses   
Intermediaries working on behalf of suppliers   
Destination Marketing Organizations (DMO)   
National tourist organizations (NTOs)   
Appendix C: Experiential Learning   
Introduction   
The Experiential learning process   
Experiential learning cycles   
Reviewing and transfer   
Appendix D: Experiential learning based T&D programmes   
Introduction   
Development training   
Outdoor Management Development (OMD)   
Professional development programmes (PDP)   
Outward Bound   
Outdoor Challenge Training (OCT)   
Appendix E: Approaches to Team building   
Introduction   
John Adair and Dr R. Meredith Belbin   
All sorts approach   
The outdoor training approach to Team building   
Appendix F: Literature Sources   
Event Management and Event Tourism   
Experiential learning, Experiential learning based T&D programmes and Team building   
Appendix G: Practical tables   

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS & ABBREVIATIONS

Abbreviations: TBE-Team Building Events; ET- Event Tourism; T&D-Training & Development; EL-Experiential Learning

Table 2.2 Areas of judgment in Event Tourism and supply appraisal                                                            
Adapted from Getz (1997, p.106)

Figure 2.1 Behavioural aims of Team building                                                            
Clark (1994, p.5)

Figure 2.2 Design and sequencing of training methods                                              
Dainty and Lucas (1992 in Brown 2003 p.30)

Table 3.1 Research participant profiles                                                                        
Diego (2006)

Table 4.1  Core categories of the study                                                                        
 Diego (2006)

Table 4.2  Groups of interviewee                                                                                  
Diego (2006)

Table 4.3 Category 1                                                                                                     
Diego (2006)

Table 4.4 Category 2                                                                                                     
Diego (2006)                                                                                                                 

Table 4.5 Category 3                                                                                                     
Diego (2006)

Figure A1. A broad division of tourism and business tourism                                     
Diego (2006) according to Rogers (2003)

Table B1 “MICE matrix                                                                                                  
 -illustrating the segments which make up the business tourism sector”
 Rogers (2003 p.23)

Figure 2.2 Kolb’s Experiential Learning Cycle                                                              
Kolb, D.A. (1984) in Brown (2003 p.8)

Table E.1 Approaches to Team building                                                                       
 Clark (1994 pp.29-43)

Table F.1 Library Sources                                                                                              
Diego (2006)

Table G.1 Implementation of an Event Tourism strategy                                            
Diego (2006) Adapted from Allen et al. (2005 pp. 68-72)

Table G.2 Business Events in a Destinations’ Events Portfolio                                    
Extracted from Getz (1997, p. 104)

Table G.3 Travelling professional workers                                                                   
Extracted from Uriely, N. (2001) in Davidson & Beulah (2003 p. 255)

Table G.4 Business tourism: pleasure quotient                                                           
Davidson & Beulah (2003 p. 256)



CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
CONTEXT OF THE STUDY

Events may help meet many social, economic, cultural, and environmental roles (Getz, 1997 p.2). Host communities and destinations can employ events effectively in a tourism role (Getz, 1997 p.2). Furthermore, events can be used to foster and support a sustainable development of the tourism industry (Getz 1997, p.70-71). Event Tourism (ET) is closely associated with Cultural tourism and Business tourism and has become firmly established as a significant instrument in tourism development and destination marketing strategies. To be competitive, host communities and destinations engage in destination and place marketing activities to attract investment, tourism, and desirable residents (Getz, 1997 p.23).


Many events have the potential to become tourist attractions (i.e. existing supply of the tourism industry) but are viewed as resources until they are actually developed and marketed for tourism consumption (Getz 1997, p.106). This research believes that inadequate attention is being paid to the multiple roles, meanings, and impacts of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS by destination planning and marketing responsible. Furthermore, many organisers pay scant, if any attention to these prospects. In consequence, TEAM BUILDING EVENTS do not reach their full potential as attractions or image makers. However, the underlying reality may be quite simply: TEAM BUILDING EVENTS are not being currently marketed and developed for tourism consumption. Irrespective of whether TEAM BUILDING EVENTS are existing tourist attractions or simply Event Tourism resources, there is a practical need to be addressed. That is, to capitalize on the value of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS in support of Event Tourism.

As the significance of events has increased, many communities, destinations, and corporations have created permanent staff positions or agencies to promote, bid on, develop or coordinate the events sector for strategic reasons (Getz p.23). Furthermore, communities and destinations have engaged in the pursuit and development of attractive event portfolios, thereby necessitating professional staff and agencies (Getz, 1997 pp. 23). In undertaking their function, these professionals and agencies require profuse information inputs Getz (1997). These inputs may be obtained from a range of sources. Getz (1997) acknowledges the importance of “obtaining quality inputs from research” (p.106-107) particularly in the judgment of what resources and why such resources should be exploited for Event Tourism. Thus, research in this area may result of value.

Moreover, the concept Team building event although in fairy common usage in the UK, seems to be purely practical with extremely little referent to it in the literature. Therefore, a gap in the knowledge exists. If TEAM BUILDING EVENTS are to be valuable resources for a destination’s Event Tourism industry, and therefore are to be developed and marketed for tourist consumption, research is required to determine in the first place their typology and nature.

GENERALIZING


While the study focuses on the UK in July 2006 it may be possible to generalize the key findings to other parts of the world, particularly to the EU as many concepts and practices being employed in the EU are similar to those deployed in the UK; furthermore some of which may have been imported and copied from the UK, as it embraces TEAM BUILDING EVENTS.

REREARCH QUESTIONS

The key questions to be answered in this study are:

•    What is a TEAM BUILDING EVENT? What specific organizational needs can be satisfied by means of a Team building event?

•    What is the value of TEAM BUILDING EVENT as Event Tourism resources?

•    What are the potential stakeholders within the Event Tourism industry that may ‘hold a stake’ in TEAM BUILDING EVENTS as a resource for Event Tourism?

•    What recommendations can be made in the light of the study that may lead to take full advantage of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS as Event Tourism resources?  


RESEARCH AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

Aims

To explore, compare and judge against the literature, the perceptions of the organisers, consumers and participants interviewed to bring out key issues that will enable the study to:

•    Add to the ‘body of knowledge’ on the field on Event Tourism by enhancing the knowledge base and theory relating to TEAM BUILDING EVENTS as Event Tourism resources or existing tourist attractions.
•    Make practical recommendations that may inform and stimulate organizers of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS in the process of a sustainable development and marketing of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS for tourism consumption 

Objectives

1.    To explore and document the typology and nature of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS.
2.    To examine TEAM BUILDING EVENTS participants and consumer organizations; their needs, demands and benefits sought for purposes of improved overall event experience and improved Event Tourism marketing strategies.
3.    To explore and document the potential value of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS as Event Tourism resources or existing supply of the Event Tourism industry.
4.    To serve as a quality research input in undertaking a number of Event Tourism related processes such as Event Tourism resource and evaluation appraisal; event bidding processes; event portfolio development processes; Event Tourism strategic development and coordination.
5.    To make recommendations in the light of the study so as to capitalize on the potential value of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS as Event Tourism resources or existing tourism attractions.
6.    To inform providers of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS about the existing range of potential stakeholders within the Event Tourism industry that may ‘hold a stake’ in TEAM BUILDING EVENTS.
7.    To foster professionalism in TEAM BUILDING EVENTS management, covering and enhancing the knowledge base and theory relating to TEAM BUILDING EVENTS as Event Tourism resources or existing attractions.
8.    To serve as an introduction to anyone considering conducting research in the field of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS as Event Tourism resources or existing supply of the tourism industry.



CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
INTRODUCTION

The relevance of the literature reviewed in the present chapter is reflected throughout the following pages, not only in the level of analysis but also in the wide-ranging breadth and depth of approach to the subject and the presentation of those complex issues that anyone interested in Event Tourism at the higher level must consider. Appendix-F provides a detailed description of the Literature sources consulted for the study.

The relevance of a critical literature review for this research lies on the grounds of two principal issues: Firstly, according to Robson (2002) “it is not possible to start a grounded theory study without some pre-existing theoretical ideas and assumptions’ (p.192); Secondly, this research is aimed to produce recommendations. These recommendations will be formulated complying with credited theory in Event Tourism and Event Management.


THEME 1: EVENTS

It was Colin Michael Hall in the preface of his hallmark work Hallmark Tourist Events who said “our lives are full of events”. Dr and senior lecturer Hall defines events as follows:

    “Events are those things out of the everyday which punctuate, mark, and identify collective and individual social realities” Hall (1992, preface)

A Special event however, as defined by Dr J. Goldblatt (1997) is:

    “A unique moment in time celebrated with ceremony and ritual to satisfy specific needs"Goldblatt (1997) quoted in Van der Wagen (2005 p.5) and Shone (2001 p.4)

For professor and PhD Donald Getz (1997), it will never be possible to come up with a universal, standardized definition, nor a classification of which types of events are exceptional or special; “it is clearly a matter of perspective or preference” (p.4). Getz defines special events from two perspectives as follows:

    “A special event is a one-time or infrequently occurring event outside the normal programme or activities of the sponsoring or organizing body”

    “To the customer or guest, a special event is an opportunity for a leisure, social or cultural experience outside the normal range of choices or beyond everyday experience”
Getz (1997, p.4)

For Shone (2001, p.5) this definition seems to exclude organizational special events of various kinds and proposes an alternative definition:
 
    “Special events are that phenomenon arising from the non-routine occasions which have leisure, cultural, personal or organizational objectives set apart from the normal activity of daily life, whose purpose is to enlighten, celebrate, entertain or challenge the experience of a group of people” Shone (2001 p.4)

Events are often characterised according to their size and scale. For instance, McDonnell et al. (1999 p.10) observes existing common categories such as mega-events, hallmark events and major events, although, the same authors stated that “definitions are not exact and distinctions become blurred” (p.10). Along the same lines, for Heron & Stevens (1990) “events vary in scale from the mega-event of world significance, such as the Olympics, to the village fair or carnival” (p.36). Events, go on Walsh-Heron & Stevens (1990 p.36), may be “regular happenings” or “special onetime affairs”. McDonnell et al. (1999 p.10), classify also events according to their purpose or to the particular sector to which they belong, for example public, sporting, tourism and corporate events.
Across the specialised literature on events and Event Tourism, TEAM BUILDING EVENTS account for the latter category -that is, corporate events.

    “Corporate events are one of the discrete sectors of the business tourism industry, which, while being separate from the conference sector, is often closely aligned to it”
 Rogers (2003 p. 56)

Tony Rogers is the executive director of the British Association of Conferences Destinations and Association of British Professional Conferences Organizers; Rogers (2003) acknowledges the necessity of the conference industry to draw upon the services of many different supplier organizations in order to offer a complete service to its buyers (p.49). Rogers (2003) goes on to include between those supplier organizations:

    “…corporate event companies such as companies running murder mystery events, sporting and outdoor activities” (p.49).

According to Rogers (2003, p.56) the corporate events sector frequently involves the exploitation of major sporting and cultural events to strengthen the links between an organization, usually a corporate organization, and its clients or potential clients (i.e. inviting clients to spend a day watching tennis at Wimbledon). Alternatively, goes on Rogers (2003) corporate events may engage in activities such as dinners, dances etc.

However, in recent years as states Rogers (2003 p. 56) there has been a manifest trend towards the active, participatory kinds of corporate events, rather than the more traditional, passive, spectator type of hospitality. To quote Rogers (2003) himself:

    “Corporate events companies are also involved in corporate Team building exercises and activities, aimed at clients and/or employees. Such activities include golf days, clay pigeon, off-road driving, go-karting, paint ball and many, many more.” (p. 56)

THEME 2: EVENT TOURISM

Introduction

Appendix-A provides a brief introduction to the fields of Cultural tourism and Business tourism that may be of interest as a background to Event Tourism, particularly for the non-experienced reader.

“Governments are increasingly turning to tourism as a growth industry capable of delivering economic benefits and job creation. Events in turn are seen as catalysts for attracting visitors, and increasing their average spend and length of stay. They are also seen as image-makers, creating profile for destinations, positioning them in the market and providing a competitive marketing advantage. This has led to the creation of a new field, known as Event Tourism”

Mc Donnell et al. (1999, p.28)

To quote Dr Donald Philip Getz, Professor of Tourism and Hospitality Management at the University of Calgary, co-founder and co-editor of the research-based periodical in the field Festival Management and Event Tourism-An International Journal (Cognizant Communication Corporation):
 
    “Event Tourism was a new term in the 1980s, but it has become firmly established as a major component of special interest tourism and a significant ingredient in destination and place marketing strategies. Every community and destination can employ events effectively in a tourism role. As well, because events help meet many social, economic, cultural, and environmental roles, most communities and destinations are already involved” Getz (1997, p.2)   

    “Event Tourism is both a planning/marketing concept and a market segment; event managers and coordinators should use tourism as a means to secure resources, help achieve destination goals, and satisfy visitors”
Getz (1997 p.21)

According to the above definition Getz (1997) suggests that Event Tourism has two meanings: firstly, “the systematic planning, development, and marketing of events as tourist attractions, catalysts for other developments, image builders, and animators of attractions and destination areas” (p.16); Secondly, “a market segment consisting of those people who travel to attend events, or who can be motivated to attend events while away from home” (p.16).

Further along in his analysis, Getz (1997, p.16) observes that not all events reach their full potential as attractions or image makers, and many organisers pay scant attention to these prospects. Others, goes on Getz (1997, p.16), do not achieve their goals as community development catalysts because they are poorly planned or marketed and fail to attract sufficient resident or tourist interest.

The following are possible reasons suggested by Getz (1997, p.16) for failure to attract sufficient resident or tourist interest by event managers: inadequate attention to the multiple roles, meanings, and impacts of events; failure to integrate each event’s marketing in destination planning and marketing; insufficient data on what event and event visitors want, and consequent inability to segment the potential markets for more effective target marketing; lack of quality in production and in management.

Additionally, Getz (1997, p.16) examines possible reasons for destinations failure to realize the potential of events: failure of destinations to effectively utilize the attractiveness of events in product development, marketing, and image making; mass marketing as opposed to integration of niche markets; and development of an incomplete portfolio of events.

Event Tourism resource and supply appraisal

Donald Getz (1997, pp.106-107) defined resources in this context, as human, financial, physical, political, and technological factors that can be used in developing and marketing Event Tourism. To quote Getz (1997) “it is useful to think of resources as having potential, whereas supply defines the existing infrastructure [i.e. existing tourism attractions] of the tourism industry” (pp.106-107). Furthermore, goes on Getz (1997)

    “Many events have the potential to become tourist attractions, but are viewed as resources until they are actually developed or marketed for tourist consumption” (p.106)

According to Getz (1997, p.106) judgment and stakeholder input is called for when assessing issues such as classifying events as to their tourism potential. An Event Tourism resource and supply appraisal process is both, a technical and evaluative process, as judgment is required in a number of areas (Getz 1997, p.106):

Areas of judgment in Event Tourism  resource and supply appraisal

•    Obtaining quality input from research             
•    Obtaining quality input from stakeholders    
•    What to include or exclude i.e., all events? All venues?
•    Evaluation of resource potential i.e. existing human resources                                                                                                              
•    Assessing the data in meaningful ways                                                                                               
•    Conducting portfolio, capacity, and SWOT evaluations
•    Formulating strategies

Table 2.2 Areas of judgment in Event Tourism and supply appraisal
Adapted from Getz (1997, p.106)

Event Tourism planning for destinations

Events may be independent elements within a resort or destination area; alternatively, they may be used and promoted as an integral feature within the tourism marketing activities. Walsh-Heron & Stevens (1990 p.37)

    ‘‘Every community and destination area should formulate an ET plan. If the destination organizations are not doing ET planning, individual event managers should cooperate to get it done, as most events and event organizations can benefit from stronger tourism development and marketing. Individual events benefit greatly when destination strategies and policies exist to help them realize their tourism potential through communications, packaging, and other forms of assistance and cooperation.’’
 Getz (1997 p.100)

According to Getz (1997 p. 101-102) Event Tourism goals and objectives for a destination should be clearly and explicitly defined by those responsible for Event Tourism planning. However, as observed by the same author, ‘‘different types of events should yield specific tourism benefits for the destination’’ (p.102-103). This requires, goes on Getz (1997), ‘‘the design of a destination events ‘portfolio’, which also lists sample output goals and development requirements’’ (p.101-102). Stating these requirements will greatly assist the priority assigned to each type of event and related outcome goal, as well as making clear the process by which the goals can be achieved (Getz 1997, 102-103). Table G.2 (Appendix-G) exemplifies this process.

The destination’s positioning strategy is shaped by one or more event attractions and the ‘theming’ that surrounds them (Getz 1997, p. 103). Even if events are not a major part of a destination portfolio, Getz goes on to state the capacity of such events to generate ‘added value’ (p.105), which comes for instance ‘from adding events to meetings and conventions.’ (p. 105) -that is adding value to major attractions.

Without doubt, points out Getz (1997) ‘‘convention goers examine the recreational and entertainment potential of a destination before deciding to attend, and organizers often choose their sites with this in mind’ (p.56). Getz (1997) concludes that in a destination’s events portfolio “there is much scope for packaging special events around conferences, meetings and expositions” (p.56).

Generic strategies for Event Tourism

Getz (1997) identifies “adding value to major attractions” (pp. 103-105) as being a generic Event Tourism strategy that can be used in formulating a destination’s strategy for events tourism. Likewise, for Allen et al. (2005), one of the general Event Tourism strategic options available to a destination is “to incorporate smaller events into larger events to add to their uniqueness and subsequent tourism appeal” (p.65).

Additional strategies observed by Getz (1997 pp.103-105) focus on events as core attractions, mega-events, theme years, variety in community events, etc. Allen et al. (2005 p.65-66) identifies three general strategic options. These strategies concern the development of existing events (which embraces the option already mentioned of incorporating smaller events into larger events), bidding to attract existing (mobile) events, and the creation of new events.

Situational analysis:  SWOT & Portfolio Analyses

According to Allen et al. (2005) “a strategic approach to a destination’s Event Tourism development efforts offers significant benefits” (p.54). Furthermore, “a detailed situational analysis should underpin the decisions made on what Event Tourism goals are set for a destination” (p.54). This analysis, as continued by Allen et al. (2005) “should reflect the various perspectives of key stakeholders in the event area”- that is, tourism bodies, the destination’s community, government agencies associated with areas such as the arts, major event organisers, etc. A strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis is “a useful way of assessing the situation that a destination faces in its efforts to develop Event Touriam” (Allen et al. 2005 p.55).

Getz (1997 pp.110-111) identifies the concept of a portfolio as an evaluative tool, which can be used in conjunction with additional evaluative tools such as the SWOT analysis of a destination. To quote Getz (1997) ‘‘in business technology a portfolio is the range of products offered, each with its own value and costs, market share, and profitability’’ (p.111). Getz (1997) goes on to indicate that “each type of event can help meet the full range of Event Tourism goals, and each requires different resources and planning approaches” (111-113). For Allen et al. (2005), in making decisions about what Event Tourism strategy to pursue, “it can be useful to link in terms of what portfolio (or mix) of events (festivals, sporting competitions, businesses events etc.) is likely to deliver the required benefits for a destination from Event Tourism” (pp.66-67).

Development of an Event Tourism strategy

The situational analysis lead to the generation of data and identification of issues for resolution or further research, which may be useful in the process of formulating Event Tourism strategies for a destination (Getz, 1997 p 115). For example, new event creation, as pointed out by Allen et al. (2005) “should be based around the activities and themes identified in the situational analysis as providing substantial scope for the development of tourists markets” (p.66). Getz (1997) highlights the importance of such an analysis as “a way to seize opportunities within development of a competitive portfolio of events” (p.115). The former author goes on to state that any the strategy generated require “further testing and refinement in the light of the overall destination strategies, including the role of events in destination positioning and as part of the destination’s marketing mix” (p.115).

Implementation of an Event Tourism strategy: policy

    “Once strategies are in place, policy is required to implement them” Getz (1997 p.115)

The next step for the organizations concerned to implement the selected strategies is therefore, to undertake appropriate actions to its/their implementation. Table G.1 (Appendix-G) shows a full range of actions that organizations involved in Event Tourism development might engage.

Tourism seasonality problems

Getz (1997) highlights the preoccupations of the tourism industry in many places with “overcoming traditional seasonality problems” (p.53)– that is, demand is concentrated in one or more peak seasons rather than being spread uniformly over the year. Allen et al. (2005) highlight the capacity of events to be scheduled in periods of low tourism demand, thereby “evening out seasonal tourism flows” (p.60). In reference to Ritchie and Beliveau (1974) among others, Getz (1997) reports that “researchers have been able to demonstrate the success of events in lengthening tourist seasons or in creating secondary peaks in annual travel patterns” (p.54).

Events as image makers

Government tourism bodies use events to position their destinations in the market, creating profile for destinations and providing a competitive marketing advantage Mc Donnell et al. (1999 p. 28)

        “Creating a positive image i.e. fostering the perception that a destination or place is worth a visit, correcting negative perceptions, and simply increasing awareness of an area are vital steps in attracting tourist” Getz (1997, p.57)

According to Getz (1997) it is apparent that major events, with global media attention focused on the host city, even for a relatively short duration can have the effect of “shaping an image of the host community or country, leading to its favourable perception as a potential travel destination” (p.57). Getz goes on to observe the enormous value of such publicity: “some destinations will use this lone to justify great expenditures on attracting events” (p.57).

Size of events and attractiveness
 
Is size a factor determining attractiveness? Getz (1997) concludes the following:

    “There is little doubt that large events generate publicity, excitement, and repeat visits, but small events can be just as important for particular market segments. In fact, it may be that many consumers will seek out the small events, associating them more with authentic cultural experience”  Getz (1997, p.111)

Sustainable Development through Quality Tourism

As reported by Getz (1997 p.70) “special interest tourists -that is, ecotourists, event tourists, cultural tourists, etc- are increasing in numbers”

    “Sustainable Tourist Development can be defined as changes (i.e. physical or economic development- not necessarily growth) that will generate benefits but not impede the ability of future generations to meet their needs and enjoy comparable or better quality of life and environment”. Getz (1997 p.70)                     

Getz (1997) highlights the similarity of this concept to principles of alternative and soft tourism “with an emphasis on the ability of tourism to foster and support conservation and economically responsible development, as well as to provide benefits directly to residents of tourist areas” (p.70).

According to the World Tourism Organization (1994), quoted in Getz (1997, p.70) the quality tourist must meet these criteria:

1.    Will appreciate and respect the environment and host culture.
2.    Travels mostly in the low demand periods; is amenable to off-season packaging.
3.    Does not necessarily require new infrastructure, but more efficiently uses existing supply.
4.    Will tolerate high levels of visitor management
5.    Does not engage in destructive forms of behaviour
6.    Will visit an area for its particular attractions and may (if appropriate) spend longer (and more money) enjoying them;
7.    Will likely seek other forms of cultural and environmental experience, and so is closely associated with eco- and cultural tourism in general. 

Therefore, a strategy that explicitly pursues higher ‘yields’, goes on Getz (1997), “rather than higher numbers of tourists or more and more development, should be more sustainable” (p.70). ‘Yield’ in this context, explains Getz (1997) “refers not only to the traditional measure of higher spending, but also to the meeting of other goals that will enhance profit potential for businesses and greater economic benefit for the destination’’ (p.70)

The benefits of business tourism

    “Although business tourism and leisure tourism rely on a similar infrastructure, the former brings with it a number of significant extra benefits, which makes it particularly attractive to destinations” Rogers (2003, p.23)

Greater profitability

To quote Davison and Beulah (2003) “business visitors to the UK spend three times more per day on average than leisure visitors” (p.14).According to Rogers (2003, p.23) the greater spending power of business tourists means increased economic benefits for the host destinations and a greater return on their investment made in infrastructure and marketing.

All-year-round activity

According to Rogers (2003, p.23) business tourism takes place throughout the year. January, July and August are the months of least activity (Robson 2003, p.23), which for many destinations is an added benefit because it means there is no clash between the demands of leisure and business tourism, but rather they are complementary. Furthermore, Rogers (2003) observes that the all-year-round nature of the business tourism also leads to:

    “…the creation and sustenance of permanent jobs, as opposed to the seasonal, temporary jobs, which are a frequent characteristic of the leisure tourism sector” (p.23)

The Business travel and pleasure interface

     “Business tourism can involve a substantial leisure element”Rogers (2003 p.23)

Business travel was defined by Davidson & Beulah (2003) as ‘‘those trips whose purpose is linked with the traveller’s employment or business interests’’ (p.3). The study in this context, is primarily concerned with the leisure events attended by those whom Uriely (2001, quoted in Davidson & Beulah, 2003 p. 254) calls ‘Travelling professional workers’ (Table G.3, Appendix-G). For Davidson & Beulah (2003) ‘‘leisure elements do play an important role in motivating the business traveller’’ (p.254). Table G.4 (Appendix-G) shows a classification of the various examples of business travel according to their pleasure quotient- that is, the extent to which the elements of leisure and enjoyment are generally a feature of the particular type of event or trip (Davidson & Beulah, 2003 p.256).

In this respect, Davidson & Beulah (2003 p. 260) quotes Alvin Toffler:

    ‘‘People go to conventions for three reasons: to get information from the platform; to meet colleagues and exchange views- networking; and for recreation, the change in routine, the social programme’’

Alvin Toffer quoted in Davidson & Beulah (2003 p. 260)

For Davidson & Beulah (2003 p. 260) ‘‘the social aspect of conferences is commonly regarded as a vitally important aspect of such events’’ (p.260). As the former authors themselves point out, although much of this is incidental, for example over coffee or in the conference centre hall bar, very often, social and cultural elements are programmed into conferences. To quote Davidson & Beulah (2003)

     ‘‘Efforts are often made by conference organizers in particular to add social programme elements to events, especially when they extend over three or four days.’
Davidson & Beulah (2003 P.260)

Incentive Travel

    “Incentive Travel is a global management tool that uses an exceptional travel experience to motivate and/or recognize participants for increased levels of performance in support of the organizational goals”

Official definition of Incentive Travel according to the Society of Incentive Travel Executives (SITE, 1998) quoted in Rogers (2003 p. 52)

From the company’s perspective, goes on Rogers (2003 p.53) it is also about strengthening the loyalty of its best employees to the company, making them want to belong to the organization and giving them reasons to perform even better in the future.

    ‘‘Incentive travel programmes are designed to create an allure or dream, which will make people want to produce an extra effort, achieve an exceptional performance and strive to be the winners within a corporate organization’’ Rogers (2003, p.53)

THEME 3: TEAM BUILDING

To understand Team building the reader must have some appreciation of what a team is and what differentiates a team from a group. This section of the literature review is not intended to be a detailed study but it should give the reader a basic grasp of the subject. Further considerations are given in Appendix-E

    “A team is distinct from a group when it has the following attributes: a common purpose; recognition by each individual as belonging to the same unit i.e. team identity; interdependent functions; agreed norms and values which regulate behaviour.” Moxon (1993 p. 4)

Dyer (1984) defined a team as having two or more people with a common goal, specific role assignments, and interdependence. Ultimately, Clark (1994) defines Team building:

    “Team building can be simply defined as a structured attempt to improve/develop the effectiveness of a group of people who work temporarily or permanently together” (p.5)

Along the same lines Shivers-Blackwell (2003 p.614) and Moxon (1993, p 28) argued that the primary purpose of Team building is to improve work team effectiveness within the organization.

This improvement/development, goes on Clark (1994 p.5), may be particularly focused in terms of outputs- that is, the speed and quality of decisions and actions produced by the team, or in terms of more nebulous areas, the quality of relationships, greater cooperation, more of a corporate attitude, etc. Figure 2.1 summarizes according to Clark (1995 p.5) what most approaches to Team building aim to develop in behavioural terms.

figure2_1.jpg

Figure 2.1 Behavioural aims of Team building
Clark (1994, p.5)


THEME 4: EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING


This chapter seeks first and foremost to provide the reader with an insight into the characteristic learning processes of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS. Likewise, the chapter seeks to draw attention to certain issues in such learning processes that may be critical for this study purposes. Therefore, the amount of theory on teams, Team building and Experiential Learning is limited to the purely functional, i.e. what the study needs to achieve its aims and objectives. Readers with an interest in further academic aspects of these types of learning interventions already have a body of work available to them. However, particularly for the non experienced reader, Appendix C provides a more in-depth approach to the topic.

As it will be thoroughly documented in following chapters (Chapter 4: Findings) the theory of Experiential Learning underpins TEAM BUILDING EVENTS. Experiential Learning theory defines learning as:

    “The process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience. Knowledge results from the combination of grasping and transforming experience.” Kolb (1984, p.41) quoted in Brown (2003, p.8)

For Martin (2001 p.13) the use of Experiential Learning promotes active involvement and contrasts with the passive learning associated with traditional teacher-centred methods. Carver (1996) cited in Martin (2001 p.14) argued that experiential education can take place in a variety of settings, for example, wilderness based adventure, job training, survival training and art education. Dr. Greenaway (1995) defines Experiential Learning:

“Experiential Learning refers to all kinds of learning through experience whether structured or unstructured, intentional or unintentional”
Greenaway (1995 p.29)

To quote Dr. Martin (2001):

“Experiential Learning is based on the belief that the process of personal growth occurs through change as a result of direct experiences. It is an active process involving the learner being placed in unfamiliar environments, outside their positions of comfort and into states of dissonance. This lack of harmony requires problem solving, inquiry and reflection” (p.12)

Kraft and Sakofs (1991), cited in Martin (2003 p.12) argued that “experiential activities should be real and meaningful providing natural consequences for the learner, for example, outdoor activities”. Krouwel (1994) also cited in Martin (2003 p.13) argued that the use of Experiential Learning, and in particular the outdoors, confronts people with the results of their own actions and provides important learning for life.

Dainty and Lucas (1992) cited in Brown (2003 p.30) suggest that Experiential Learning activities should be sequenced, starting with fun and enjoyment, through narrow skills, broad skills to development (Figure 2.4).
figure2_2.jpg
 


















Figure 2.2 Design and sequencing of training methods
Dainty and Lucas (1992 in Brown 2003 p.30)

This model suggests that the learning of narrow skills such as sailing, camping and climbing are valid as part of Experiential Learning based activities, as long as they are built upon as the event or programme progresses to be utilized in broad skills such as a sailing trip or an excursion which can lead to development when supported by process reviewing (Brown, 2003 p.30).

Reviewing and transfer

To quote Greenaway (1992) “reviewing is an essential feature of experience-based learning”. Irvine and Wilson (1994, quoted in Brown, 2003) argued that “a review of the process used to achieve outcomes is essential to transfer” (p.34). Brown (2003) cites Krouwell and Goodwill (1992), Dainty and Lucas (1992) and Gass, (1990) to suggest that “participation in activities will not on its own lead to learning” (p.34).

“The main function of reviewing is to enable participants to learn from their experiences” Greenaway (1992)



CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY

CHAPTER OVERVIEW

This chapter describes the methodology of the study. Following this overview, chapter three begins with a discussion of why a grounded theory approach was chosen as the research design reflecting the use of qualitative methods. The chapter then outlines how and why grounded theory data analysis techniques were used for the qualitative analysis of data from semi-structured interviews of event organisers, event participants and event consumer organisations of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS in the United Kingdom. Finally, issues in trustworthiness, limitations and ethical considerations of the study are considered, reinforcing the rigor of the research process and acknowledging the researcher’s biases.


RESEARCH DESIGN

The choice of paradigm in the present study was based on the researcher’s worldview, assumptions on how the research should be conducted, and the nature of the research, as indicated by Remenyi et al. (1998 quoted in Martin 20011 p.60). The author of this study considers his task as a researcher “to understand the multiple social constructions of meaning and knowledge” as commented by Robson (2002 p.27).

The research paradigm adopted was, therefore, Constructivist. Robson (2002 p.27) refers to Constructivism as one of many labels used to denote the current state of qualitative research. By the term qualitative research, Strauss & Corbin (1998) refer to “any type of research that produces findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other means of quantification” (pp.10-11). In speaking about qualitative analysis, Strauss & Corbin (1998) refer to “a non mathematical process of interpretation, carried out for the purpose of discovering concepts and relationships in raw data and then organizing these into a theoretical explanatory scheme” (p.11). The researcher chose a Grounded theory study (Strauss & Corbin, 1998) as the main methodology in conducting this research project. According to Robson (2002) “Strauss & Corbin (1998) make the explicit point that grounded theory is a general method that can be used in both quantitative and qualitative studies” (p.192). The present study adopted a qualitative rather than quantitative approach as this is more likely to uncover the subjective experiences of the participants involved in the study (Donninson 2000). Likewise, the qualitative approach is more likely to assume that relevant issues in capitalizing on the value of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS as Event Tourism resources produce different perceptions, on different individuals. The specific data collection method used in conducting the fieldwork was semi-structured interviews of several TEAM BUILDING EVENTS organisers, participants and consumer organisation in the UK. Robson (2002) observed the tendency of constructivist researchers “to use methods such as interviews and observation which allow them to acquire multiple perspectives” (p.27). The research participants in this study are clearly viewed (Robson, 2002) as “helping to construct the ‘reality’ with the researcher” (p.27). For Robson (2002) “interviews are the most common data collection method in grounded theory studies” (p.191). Additionally, for Robson (2002) “interviews can be used as the only approach in many grounded theory studies” (p.270).

GROUNDED THEORY STUDY

The research tradition that informs the present research project is Grounded theory study (Strauss & Corbin, 1988) rather than a Case Study or an Ethnography study. Strauss & Corbin (1988) defined grounded theory as “theory that was derived from data, systematically gathered and analyzed through the research process” (p.12). This is continued by the authors who stated that “data collection, analysis, and eventual theory stand in close relationship to one another” (p.12). For Robson (2002):

 “A grounded theory study seeks to generate a theory which relates to the particular situation forming the focus of the study. This theory will be ‘grounded’ in data obtained during the study, particularly in the actions, interactions and processes of the people involved” (p.191)

As argued by Strauss & Corbin (1988), “grounded theories, because they are drawn from data, are likely to offer insight, enhance understanding, and provide meaningful guide to action” (p.12). For Robson (2002) Grounded theory studies in qualitative research, are “particularly useful in applied areas of research, and novel ones, where the theoretical approach to be selected is not clear or is non-existent” (p.192).
The justification for this research to take a Grounded theory approach lies principally on the following grounds: Firstly, the theoretical approach for the research topic is perceived by the researcher as non-existent. Secondly, the applied nature of the research, as the study aims to address practical needs and produce recommendations. The latter- that is, the applied nature of this research is clearly seen in the aims and objectives of this research, which will be developed on a practical basis in following chapters. However, the justification of a Grounded theory study based on the novel theoretical approach to the present area of research needs further consideration.

The justification of a Grounded theory study


By simply introducing the term Team building event in any World Wide Web search engine, this displays a wide amalgam of events and event providers self called Team building events and Team building event providers respectively. Many of those providers are also T&D companies and Corporate event companies. The concept Team building event is, therefore, in fairy common usage in the UK. However, it seems to be purely practical with extremely little referent to it in the literature. It can be said that research under the former term is practically non existent. The outdoor approach to Team building Clark (1994, pp.31-32 and 43-70) may be the most direct generic antecedent to TEAM BUILDING EVENTS as described in this thesis. Yet, there are still essential inconsistencies such as, for example the length of the events that in the Clark’s (1994) outdoor approach to Team building is “over three days” (p.44); the size of the participant team that in the Clark’s approach is, at the highest “20” (p.44). Appendix-E provides a more detailed description of the outdoor training approach to Team building.

TEAM BUILDING EVENTS as described in this study may have their most direct specific antecedent in the literature on Experiential Learning based T&D programmes. A broad search strategy was used to identify relevant literature from around the world on TEAM BUILDING EVENTS as defined in this thesis. A trail was followed through the literature on both Experiential Learning based T&D, Team building and Event Tourism relevant articles that were cited in the most powerful and pertinent literature, and therefore accepted by the academic community, were studied. Appendix-F provides a detailed description of the Literature sources consulted in this literature search process.
Experiential Learning based Training & Development programmes
No reference whatsoever was found by this research under de terms TEAM BUILDING EVENTS within the above mentioned body of knowledge. Furthermore, previous research on Experiential Learning based T&D programmes has always been angled so as to consider those as purely T&D programmes rather than T&D events with a potential value as Event Tourism resources.
Instead, the study found a wealth of empirical research on Experiential Learning based T&D programmes across the specialised literature. There is a jungle of terms and acronyms which stand for this type of programmes: OMD, CAT, EBTD, OCT, PDP, Development Training, Adventure-Based Experiential Training and the various types of Outdoor Training- that is Adventure-based, Outdoor-centered and Wilderness programs. The above areas of practice have been identified by this research as the most direct antecedent to TEAM BUILDING EVENTS as described in the present study.
Typically, each of these areas portray essential particularities among one another principally in facilitation techniques and programme objectives. Inconsistencies such as the length of the programmes or whether or not the programmes are facilitated on a residential basis for their participants are some examples of those. Yet, the former areas of practice all include Team building objectives within the range of purposes pursued by each of those different programmes.

It is beyond the scope of this thesis to explore the insights of the multiple Team building approaches and existing Experiential Learning based T&D programmes. But so as to be able to identify previous research relevant to the study, this research searched and reviewed the most relevant existing approaches to Team building and Experiential Learning based T&D programmes. Furthermore, the study tried to map out those particularly for the non experienced reader so as to contextualize the present research and place TEAM BUILDING EVENTS on this map. The results of such literature search and review process have been already presented. However, the mapping out process as it is not essential for the study to achieve its aims, it is featured in Appendixes D and E.

EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING BODY OF KNOWLEDGE

The literature on Event Tourism reveals a profound lack of information about TEAM BUILDING EVENTS as Event Tourism resources. The existing research is limited to purely academic classifications. Such classifications acknowledge the existence of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS. Yet, do not go beyond their classification ‘per se’ and consequently do not provide any further understanding of the potential tourism value of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS as Event Tourism resources. Across the specialised literature on events and Events tourism, TEAM BUILDING EVENTS account for the category of Corporate events within the Business Tourism sector. Rogers (2003) supports this classification as discussed previously in Chapter 2 and depicted in Table B.1 (Appendix-B)

In consequence, the grounded theory study taken in conducting the present research is grounded on the lack of research on TEAM BUILDING EVENTS as described in this thesis and the value of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS as Event Tourism resources respectively, within the bodies of knowledge considered; that is, Experiential Learning based T&D programmes and that of the Event Tourism industry.
Data Collection Method
The research methodology adopted by this study in conducting the fieldwork aimed to put event organisers, event participants and event consumer organisations of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS in a central position. The study wished to gather such key players’ perceptions on the Event Tourism value of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS and formulate a theory based on their point of view. Robson (2002) suggests the tendency of constructivist researchers “to use methods such as interviews and observation which allow them to acquire multiple perspectives” (p.27). Furthermore, Robson (2002) pointed out that “interviews are the most common data collection method in grounded theory studies” (p.191). Lastly, the former author goes on to comment that “interviews can be used as the only approach in many grounded theory studies” (p.270)
The form of data collection was face-to-face semi-structure interviews. This method is appropriate according to Robson (2003 p.271) for studies focusing on the meaning of particular phenomena to the participants. Therefore, this approach is likely to be the best suited to gather the different perceptions that TEAM BUILDING EVENTS and relevant issues on these events as Event Tourism resources produce on different individuals. The option of group interviews was rejected, event providers, buyers and event participants were very busy and difficult to assemble into one group.

The multiple views of people with deep first-hand knowledge were collected through face-to-face semi-structure interviews. Up to 12 interviews thoroughly prepared and scheduled (Robson 2003 p.273) of around 40 minutes of duration, were undertaken. The interviews were all taped and partially transcript as soon as feasible, habitually within 24-48 hours. As an incentive to participate, research participants were each offered an electronic copy of the study on its completion.
Sampling
According to Robson (2002), “sampling in grounded theory studies is purposive” (p.193). This study did not seek a representative sample for its own sake. Robson (2002) goes on to indicate that “there is certainly no notion of random sampling from a known population to achieve statistical generalizability” (p.193). According to the forgoing considerations, this study did not make random choice of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS providers, participants, and consumer organisations. Instead, the study chose research participants from Scotland, Wales and England which may be more likely to broadly represent the understanding of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS and issues relevant to their value as Event Tourism resources at the time in the whole UK. The sampling, however, did not either intend or achieve in any way statistical generalizability. In this study, sampling of research participants was undertaken according to Robson (2002) “so that additional information could be obtained to help in generating conceptual categories” (p.193). Within grounded theory, goes on Robson (2002) this type of purposive sampling is referred to as “theoretical sampling” (p.193). That is, the research participants were chosen to help the researcher to formulate theory (Robson, 2002 p.193).
This research, according to common practice in grounded theory studies (Robson 2002 p.265), carried out an initial sampling. Subsequently, from analysis of its results, the sampling was extended in ways guided by the emerging theory (Robson, 2002 p. 265).

Participant profiles    No.
Managing Directors of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS Companies                   
Strategic Managers of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS Companies       
Freelance providers of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS                                                                                             
Corporate Buyers of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS                                                                                                                     
Participants of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS                                                                                                
Total Participants in sample:                                                                    4
1
3
2
2
12

Table 3.1 Research participant profiles
Diego (2006)

DATA ANALYSIS METHODS

This researcher did not begin the present project with a preconceived theory in mind; rather the researcher began with an area of study and allowed the theory to emerge from the data (Strauss & Corbin, 1988 p.12). The data obtained from ‘the field’ by means of semi-structured interviews, were analysed each time between the twelve data collection sessions according to Robson (2002 p. 192). Though the analysis, theory was built through interaction with the data, making comparisons and asking questions of the data (Robson 2002 p.493). Grounded theory studies have explicit procedures for the analysis of qualitative data (Robson 2002 p. 192).
The data collection process continued, according to the procedures described by Robson (2002), until the categories found through analysis were “saturated” (p.192). Strauss & Corbin (1988) defined category as “concepts that stand for phenomena” (p.101). According to Robson (2002) A saturated category is one that “you have squeezed as much conceptual juice as you can out of the data so that continuing analysis is giving severely diminished returns in the new categories and insights that is yielding” (p.494). As described by Robson (2002, p.493) this research sought to find the central core categories which are both at a high level of abstraction and grounded in the data collected and analysed. As defined by Robson (2002) core category is “a centrepiece of the analysis/ central phenomenon at the highest degree of abstraction around which the categories arising from axial coding are integrated. (p.495)
This process was accomplished in three stages (Robson, 2002 p.493-494):

Open coding: This is a process of interpreting and coding data by means of which the researcher split interview transcripts into discrete parts; eventually, The researcher proceed to label these resultant pieces of data. Some pieces of data were considered to fall within more than one conceptual category (i.e. label). These conceptual categories arose from the data and were not pre-determined in any way. The open coding process took place before data collection was complete which this researcher believed to be appropriate in order to monitoring categories and detecting saturated categories. 

Axial coding: At this point the researcher linked together the conceptual categories developed through the process of open coding. No particular pre-determined format was adopted. Instead, the axial codes (i.e. new clusters formed) emerged from the data (Robson, 2002 p. 494; Strauss & Corbin, 1988 p.12)
Selective coding: At this stage of the analysis, the research was ready to explain what is central in the data (i.e. core category). The researcher started by describing the picture of relationships between categ

Selective coding: At this stage of the analysis, the research was ready to explain what is central in the data (i.e. core category). The researcher started by describing the picture of relationships between categories that the axial coding had produced.

On complexion of this process the researcher was ready to explain what is central in the data (i.e. core category). This is the conceptual category which enables the researcher to understand the story line (i.e. overall picture) Strauss and Corbin (1998) in Robson (2002 p.495)

TRUSTWORTHINESS OF THE STUDY


Reliability

For Robson (2003 p.551) there are well-established procedures for assessing reliability in fixed design research. However, as suggested by the former, this issue is “more difficult to deal with in flexible design research, where some researchers would regard the concept as inappropriate” (p.551).

As expected from a constructivist paradigm, this study aimed to explore the unique personal testimony of 12 players in the TEAM BUILDING EVENTS marketplace in the UK; collecting their views on a range of relevant issues so as to enable the study to capitalize on the value of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS as Event Tourism resources. There is no reason to believe that another 12 people would say the same things or that these same participants would say the same thing at another time.

Researcher bias

When processing the data the researcher remained aware that he played a major role in the production and interpretation of the data. According to Denscombe (1998) cited in Brown (2003, p.49) no facts exist just because they were spoken by the research participants, the selection of themes was subjective and therefore the researcher acknowledges that his own paradigms and values were included in the process and in the data. The researcher’s position as a novel provider in the TEAM BUILDING EVENTS market and his background in Event Management will have also influenced him.

Validity

Maxwell (1992) cited in Robson (2003 p.171) argued that the main types of understanding involved in qualitative research are description, interpretation and theory. Robson (2003, p.171) described the main threats to validity in qualitative research designs in relation to these types.

Description: The inaccuracy or incompleteness of the data was minimized by audio-taping the interviews (Robson 2003, p.171). Consistency was achieved by partial transcription (Robson 2003, p.171) of the most relevant issues of each interview from tape onto a separate word document as soon as feasible, typically within 24-48h.
Interpretation: No framework, meaning or perspective of participants was imposed. Instead, these emerged from what the researcher learned during his involvement with the setting (Robson 2003, p.171)
Theory: Alternative explanations or understandings of the phenomena subject of study in this research were sought whenever feasible (Robson 2003, p.171).

LIMITATIONS AND ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS OF THE STUDY

Limitations of the study

The area of research –that is, the TEAM BUILDING EVENTS market today in the UK, is relatively broad and extensive in so far as the number and variety of providers, the overall volume of the business, and its geographical distribution. The scarcity of resources of this research, particularly in terms of time and research budget certainly influenced the size of the sample and therefore the data collection process. In an “ideal world” where time, budget and other constrains would not have limited the study, the sample for this research project would have been bigger in terms of participants number so as to further inform important categories that the researcher did not believe to be saturated at the end of the data collection process. Therefore, such ‘non-saturated’ categories would not see the light in the present study and will have to wait further research in the years to come. In consequence this research findings may be broad and relatively shallow rather than deep and narrow.
As a final point, although the supply side in the sample includes the most relevant kind of providers identified by this study, the demand side of the sample is lacking non-corporate organizational consumers, principally institutional consumers such as Home office, NHS or Universities in the UK.

Ethical considerations of the study

The three main ethical issues considered (Brown 2003 p.43) were:

Consent: All research participants were invited to be interviewed and the whole study was explained to them in advance.
Confidentiality: All participants were informed that their identity would be kept confidential.
Consequences: Participants were informed that the results may be of benefit to the industry and that those results would be shared with them.



CHAPTER 4: FINDINGS

INTRODUCTION

Having established the methodology used in the study, in this chapter the findings will be presented. The aim is to give a simple, clear and complete account of the results. Giving a huge mass of data will be avoided and only items considered to be important will be shown. The interview transcripts have been reduced to lists, summaries and quotations in order to extract the full meaning. This chapter shows just the facts; extended discussion of the meaning of the data is made in Chapter 5.


Taking full advantage of Team building events as Event Tourism  resources or existing attractions
•    Typology and nature of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS
•    Team building event participants and consumer organizations
•    TEAM BUILDING EVENTS and the Event Tourism industry

Table 4.1  Core categories of the study, Diego (2006)

Each table of refined data is followed by a brief interpretation of that data. The letter after each item denotes the groups of interviewee from which it came. The letters will be used only to denote concepts on which all the group members agree. As summarized in table 4.2 the groups of interviewee are as follows:

Groups of interviewee    Letter
Providers/ Organisers    A
Consumers / Buyers    B
End users/ Participants    C

Table 4.2  Groups of interviewee
Diego (2006)

Category 1: Typology and nature of Team Building Events

Typology and nature of Team building events
•    Profile of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS (A, B, C)
•    Activities used for TEAM BUILDING EVENTS (A, B, C)
•    Learning models used for TEAM BUILDING EVENTS (A)







Table 4.3 Category 1
Diego (2006)
Profile of Team building events

Providers of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS expressed that the generic title Team building event is in fairly common usage in the UK to describe training events that often involve engaging in Experiential Learning, or learning by doing with reflection which is intensified by the use of a wide variety of indoor and outdoor leisure and entertainment activities, incentives, competitions, and challenges with the major purpose of increasing team effectiveness. TEAM BUILDING EVENTS may take place in different venues, settings and destinations

The following classification of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS integrates both supply and demand parameters as emerged from the data (A, B, C):

•    Participatory events (versus spectator)
•    Private events (as opposed to public, festive events)
•    Learning events (including authentic cultural experiences)
•    Once-in-a-lifetime opportunities (as opposed to periodic events)
•    Socialising events (opportunities for meeting and seeing people)

The following parameters are typically but not necessarily found in TEAM BUILDING EVENTS (A, B, C):

•    Leisure events (pleasurable, featuring fun)
•    Uniqueness (opportunities to experience something different)
•    Tourist events (that is, events with a tourism value)
Length of the event and event demand periods

The TEAM BUILDING EVENTS industry has an all-year-round activity (A). Yet, the consumer demand for these events is mostly concentrated in the low demand periods for the traditional leisure tourism industry (A, B). February and March are the periods of less activity (A, B).

TEAM BUILDING EVENTS vary in duration from two hours up to a few days (A). 

Activities for Team building events

As summarized from the input of various providers, participants of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS may engage in activities such as rock climbing, high ropes, sailing, kayaking, abseiling, raft building, white-water rafting, mountain biking, off road driving, orienteering, outdoor survival, bushcraft activities, caving, indoor/outdoor games and activities such as treasure hunts, murder mystery, food and wine testing and a wide variety of multidisciplinary indoor/outdoor problem solving tasks.

A TEAM BUILDING EVENTS will begin by clarifying objectives with managers, participants and providers, in accordance to what is hoped will be achieved (A). This stage will be followed by occasional theory inputs if relevant, and review processes to ensure that the event achieve its aims (A).

TEAM BUILDING EVENTS strive for designing events which are emotionally engaging but do not have an ‘off-putting’ effect on their participants, as negative emotions may inhibit learning (B). Thereby, activities are carefully selected to match specific participant groups (B). To quote a Managing Director with extensive international experience as a provider of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS:
    “TEAM BUILDING EVENTS need to be emotionally engaging for the client group. That is key. City Traders for example, they are not likely to be engaged by doing a few basic team tasks and having a flipchart for the afternoon, whereas stick them on a helicopter that’s going to engage them”

Learning models used for Team building events

There is a wide range of learning models and tools that can be applied to TEAM BUILDING EVENTS (B). However, the learning model known as Experiential Learning is certainly the most widely used (B).  The great majority of providers expressed that Experiential Learning-based TEAM BUILDING EVENTS represent a vast proportion of their work as TEAM BUILDING EVENTS organisers. However, only one provider expressed that this learning model is an essential component of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS and therefore, an indispensable element for an event to be referred as A TEAM BUILDING EVENTS. Most providers emphasised that emotional engagement of participants intensified by the use of activities, is a key component of the learning process in TEAM BUILDING EVENTS.
An appropriated use of complementary learning models or tools may enhance the overall learning process (A); psychometrics such as Myers Briggs™ or Belbin Interplace™ (probably the most popular) are occasionally used in Experiential Learning-based TEAM BUILDING EVENTS (B).

Category 2: Team building event participants and consumer organizations

Team Building Events participants and consumer organizations

Client and participant profiles (A, B, C)
Client/organizational needs
•    Increase team effectiveness (A, B)
•    Organizational internal communication needs (A, B)
•    Corporate/ Organizational leisure needs (B)
•    Networking and socialising needs (A, B)
•    Employee rewarding and motivational needs (A, B)
Client and participant demands
•    Achieve event objectives (B)
•    Innovative and creative events (B, C)
•    Deliver within tight budgets (B)
•    Deliver within tight deadlines (B)
•    More enjoyable, more pleasurable, more fun (C)

Table 4.4 Category 2
Diego (2006)
Client and participant profiles

This study distinguishes between ‘end users’ (i.e. event participants) and ‘consumers’ (i.e. client or buyer) of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS. Providers stated that TEAM BUILDING EVENTS participants are often senior managers from public and private organizations with great level of responsibility (B). However, a good number of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS being run today in the UK involve all sorts of employees as participants (A). All providers interviewed indicated that non UK residents from all over the world participate in TEAM BUILDING EVENTS delivered in the UK on a regular basis (A).

Many providers expressed that companies operating in the financial services, pharmaceutical and information technology sectors are among the leading clients of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS in the UK. Likewise, public organizations such as NHS or Home Office are also important clients.

As expressed by many event organizers, the number of participants in a Team building event may be said is typically 15-20 participants. However, there is no consensus among providers and this number may vary from 5-6 up to over 100.




Client/Organizational needs

Increase team effectiveness

Buyers and providers of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS expressed that the organizational need of improving team effectiveness is the major purpose and underlie ultimately most TEAM BUILDING EVENTS (A, B)

Organizational internal communication needs

Organizational clients and end users expressed that TEAM BUILDING EVENTS are “an exceptional tool to put across virtually any internal organizational message” and underlined the capacity of such events to assist in the process of implementing an organizations mission, vision and values (B, C); implementing the corporate culture of an organization (B, C); and shape the organizational internal image (C). To quote, for example, a corporate buyer:

     “TEAM BUILDING EVENTS make you feel that you are part of the company’s family and therefore the company’s goals become to a certain extent your goals. So you want to work harder to achieve that. Participants get that feeling of possession and then they pass it on to the external clients”

Organizational leisure needs

Corporate buyers, make occasional use of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS as a medium to satisfy particular organizational leisure needs, whilst addressing at the same time additional goals such as, for example, those featured in table 4.5. To quote an organizational client interviewed:
 
    “I believe they are a very good vehicle for leisure. But I don’t think it is leisure in itself and they should not be seen as that. There are goals to be achieved.  However, I do consider that TEAM BUILDING EVENTS need to be fun and pleasurable. Yes absolutely, undoubtedly, 110%”

Providers of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS expressed that an element of fun contributes to the learning process (B). Furthermore, many of those expressed that TEAM BUILDING EVENTS need to be fun as “enjoyable” (A). However, there is not general consensus among providers in considering TEAM BUILDING EVENTS a medium for leisure. Event participants are clear on this topic; TEAM BUILDING EVENTS need to be fun and pleasurable (C).

    “The key is to be able to create a fun culture but still deal with serious issues. When people are in a happy place you can do a lot more with them”

(Managing Director of a firm provider of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS)

Networking and socialising needs

As expressed by many buyers, providers and participants of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS, these events are an exceptional tool for networking and socialising. Furthermore, corporate buyers expressed that networking and socializing are often among the principal organizational motivations to run a TEAM BUILDING EVENTS (A)

Employee rewarding needs

Organizational clients describe TEAM BUILDING EVENTS as a valuable tool for employee reward provided that those events are hold in exceptional environments. The relevance of factors such as the quality of the accommodation, food and beverage and travel were equally highlighted (B). Most providers expressed that TEAM BUILDING EVENTS can be a good medium for employee reward provided that they are specifically designed to meet the client group needs (B).

Employee incentive needs

Organizational buyers do not consider TEAM BUILDING EVENTS as effective incentives to motivate their employees (B). TEAM BUILDING EVENTS will not make them want to produce an extra effort and achieve an exceptional performance within the organization (B). As expressed by the responsible for booking TEAM BUILDING EVENTS within a multinational corporation “after all they are working”. Most Team building event organisers shared the same view (A).
Client and participant demands
As expressed by those consumers of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS who participated in this study, TEAM BUILDING EVENTS need to achieve the specific objectives that have been previously shaped and agreed between both client and event organiser (A). Yet, the demand of clients is often centred upon creative events i.e. wanting things that have never been tried before, the requirement to meet extremely tight deadlines and even tighter budgets (B). The responsible for booking TEAM BUILDING EVENTS within a multinational corporation with subsidiaries in the UK expressed that many TEAM BUILDING EVENTS are largely known and therefore not innovative.

Participants are clear on this issue; they demand creative and innovative events and more fun without loosing, however their learning outcomes (C).

Category 3: Team building events & the Event Tourism industry

Team building events and the Event Tourism industry

•    The existing connection with MICE industry (A, B, C)
•    Consumer behaviour: relevant issues (A, B, C)







Table 4.5 Category 3
Diego (2006)
The connection with the MICE industry


TEAM BUILDING EVENTS may be standalone events or being parts of a bigger event typically meetings, but also small conferences and other type MICE events (A, B, C). Providers and buyers expressed that TEAM BUILDING EVENTS depending on the goals to be achieved may be either fit into the conference programme or added at the end.

Depending on the provider interviewed, from 5% to over 50% of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS are part of bigger events principally meetings and conferences but also other type of MICE events (B); Organizational clients and participants of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS were not precise in their appreciations although these were around 50% (B, C).

Relevant issues in consumer behaviour

Firstly, all providers interviewed indicated that the delivery of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS in a location out of the natural working area for the client organisations is regular practice for them. This may mean occasionally travelling relatively long distances (A). Secondly, the great majority of providers expressed that TEAM BUILDING EVENTS are occasionally delivered in overseas destinations for UK based companies or global companies with subsidiaries in the UK.



CHAPTER 5: DISCUSSION

INTRODUCTION

Within this chapter the findings of the study will be discussed and related to the literature. The extent to which the study answered the research questions will be evaluated. Recommendations will be made to providers and potential stakeholders of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS so as to capitalize on the value of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS as Event Tourism resources.


The key questions to be answered in this study were:

•    What is a TEAM BUILDING EVENT? What specific organizational needs can be satisfied by means of a TEAM BUILDING EVENT?
•    What is the value of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS as Event Tourism resources?
•    What are the potential stakeholders within the Event Tourism industry that may ‘hold a stake’ in TEAM BUILDING EVENTS as a resource for Event Tourism?
•    What recommendations can be made in the light of the study that may lead to take full advantage of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS as Event Tourism resources?  


The first two questions to be answered are purely descriptive, and hopefully they have been sufficiently documented in Chapter 4. The study now will build on and discuss various issues in answer to the last three questions.

THE VALUE OF TEAM BUILDING EVENTS AS EVENT TOURISM RESOURCES

Capacity to assist in overcoming seasonality problems

As discussed in Chapter 2, “events have unique advantages in overcoming seasonality” Getz (1997, p.53). The former author reported the preoccupations of the tourism industry in many places with “overcoming traditional seasonality problems” (p.53). As a result, there is an existing surplus capacity in the off-peak seasons within most destinations i.e. in hotels; tourist attractions etc. As suggested by Getz (1997) by “simply spreading the tourist demand more uniformly throughout the year would improve operating yields dramatically” (p.70). Getz (1997) draws attention to the business tourism and states that “meeting and convention travel often favours off-peak seasons, both to secure lower costs for participants and to ensure sufficient space in facilities” (p.54).
Category 1 shows the all year round activity of the TEAM BUILDING EVENTS industry, being the consumer demand for these events mostly concentrated in off-peak seasons of the traditional leisure tourism industry. Thereby, TEAM BUILDING EVENTS would contribute to make good use of existing under utilized infrastructure of the tourism industry such as hotels, transport, venues and other event related services.

TEAM BUILDING EVENTS are often linked to meetings and small conferences (Category 3). As discussed in Chapter 2, “conference and business tourism takes place throughout the year” (Rogers 2003, p.23).  Furthermore, spring and autumn are the peak seasons of the business tourism industry although many small conferences and meetings are also held during the winter months (Rogers 2003, p.23). That means there is no clash between the demands of leisure and business tourism, but rather they are complementary.

Capacity to attract overnight stays & increase the length of stay

TEAM BUILDING EVENTS vary in duration from two hours up to a few days (Category 1). Category 3 shows that TEAM BUILDING EVENTS may be held as part of events such as meetings or conferences rather than as standalone events. This being the case, TEAM BUILDING EVENTS would have a potential effect on visitors already in the area to stay longer (McDonnell et al. 1999, p.28). On the contrary, when TEAM BUILDING EVENTS are held as standalone events, it may be the case that these are run in a different location from the customer’s working environment (Category 3), encouraging, therefore, overnight stays (Getz 1997, p.66)

Capacity of delivering economic benefits and job creation
TEAM BUILDING EVENTS do have the capacity to deliver economic benefits. That is, the expenditure of visitors spread over travel, accommodation, restaurants, shopping and other Event Tourism related services (McDonnell et al. 1999, p.30). Furthermore, the use of existing under utilized infrastructure of the tourism industry such as hotels, transport, venues and other event related services would contribute to job creation or maintenance. As pointed out by Getz (1997) “event tourists are often big spenders” (p.70). Additionally, TEAM BUILDING EVENTS participants as shows Category 2 are often senior managers from public and private organizations with great level of responsibility and influential power. To quote Davison and Beulah (2003) “business visitors to the UK spend three times more per day on average than leisure visitors” (p.14).

Capacity to assist in shaping destination’s image and attract future inward investment

Team building and many other minor events do not have the potential to accommodate large numbers of tourists/participants, let alone media coverage. However, the rationale for integrating these events within a destination events portfolio is primarily that of contributing to the overall destination’s tourist marketing strategy. In terms of assisting in shaping a destination’s image, if strategically planned and successfully managed, these events do have the potential on a smaller scale of creating a positive image, correcting negative perceptions, increasing awareness or enhancing the appeal of a destination. This may help destinations to compete in bidding processes for major events, attracting minor events or shaping in general a destination’s tourism attractiveness.

Many TEAM BUILDING EVENTS participants are senior executives from public and private organizations from all over the world (Category 2). The status of the positions occupied by these participants may mean that they have the potential to be “disproportionately influential” when they return to their home and work environments. These business people may discover the benefits of a particular location for future conventions or for incentive travel or even (Robson 2003, p.23) to relocate their business or to set up a subsidiary and so become the engine to attract future inward investment.

The forgoing considerations are analogous to those observed by Faulkner et al. (2001 p.238-239) referring to the impact of word-of-mouth communication of the Sydney 2000 Olympics Sponsor Guest Programme and the opportunity to building useful relationships with its participants respectively. For Faulkner et al. (2001) the status of the positions occupied for by some of the participants may mean that they have the potential to be “disproportionately influential” (p.239) when they return to their home and work environments. Likewise, these business people, goes on Faulkner et al. (2001) “may discover the benefits of a particular location for future conventions or incentive travel” (p.238)

Along the same lines Davidson & Beulah (2003, p. 256) quoted in Rogers (2003, p.24) suggested that:

    “A business visitor who leaves with good impression of the conference, trade fair or incentive destination becomes an unpaid ambassador for that place… these are often influential people, whose opinions of the destination will be instrumental in determining its image in the minds of others who have not visited it”

POTENTIAL STAKEHOLDERS OF TEAM BUILDING EVENTS WITHIN THE EVENT TOURISM INDUSTRY


The study presents as follows the existing range of potential stakeholders of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS within the Event Tourism industry, discussing the underlying rational for a number of agencies and intermediaries of the Event Tourism industry to ‘hold a stake’ in TEAM BUILDING EVENTS.
Appendix-3 is intended to provide the non-experienced reader with a more detailed inside into the Event Tourism industry, whose structure may become puzzling and complex. Appendix-3 may be also useful for providers of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS on a practical basis as it is framed particularly in the UK.

Meeting, conference or similar event planners could either be employees of the buyer agency i.e. company or association, or they could be intermediaries- employees of agencies specialised in organising such events on behalf of clients (Davidson & Beulah, 2003 pp.113-114).

Intermediaries working on behalf of buyers


Professional Conference Organizers (PCOs)

    “The PCO acts as the project manager for the whole event… Davidson & Beulah (2003 p.114) 

The range of services offered by a PCO can extend to ‘‘as little or as much as the client requires’’ Davidson & Beulah (2003 p.114-115): venue selection, booking and liaison; event marketing; assistance to conference bids; finance consultancy; arranging social events etc (Rogers, 2003 p. 50-51; Davidson & Beulah, 2003 p.114-115).Therefore, PCOs may ‘hold a stake’ in TEAM BUILDING EVENTS by playing a buying role for their organizational customers. PCOs may also be interested in packaging TEAM BUILDING EVENTS directly to particular conferences.

Incentive Travel Houses

Incentive Travel Houses are specialized providers of Incentive Travel (Chapter 2) as a management tool used to motivate and/or recognize participants for increased levels of performance in support of the organizational goals (Rogers, 2003).

Category 2 shows that organizational buyers do not consider TEAM BUILDING EVENTS as effective incentives to motivate their employees. Many TEAM BUILDING EVENTS organisers share the same view (Category 2). However, for Rogers (2003) “Incentive travel programmes may have an educational element for the participants” (p.53). Furthermore, Rogers (2003) identifies “Team building activities” among the actual “ingredients” that incentive programmes may have (p.54). It makes, therefore, a good business sense to think that providers operating in the incentive market may ‘hold a stake’ in TEAM BUILDING EVENTS as ‘ingredients’ for their incentive programmes.
Additionally, Rogers (2003) observed that many incentives now include a meeting and states:

    “This is a way of delegates avoiding the need to be taxed on the benefit of the incentive trip. However, it also makes good business sense to build a more formal work related element into the incentive programme” (P.54)

Rogers made no reference to the effect on delegates’ taxes of including a TEAM BUILDING EVENTS within an incentive programme. Inland Revenue Tax Bulletin states in its 27th issue that:

“Sometimes, the Government gets suggestions that employers should be given tax relief for the costs of training their employees. That surprises us, since except in cases where the employee has some link with the employer outside the employment itself, the disallowance of expenditure by an employer on staff T&D will be extremely unusual indeed” Inland Revenue Tax Bulletin. Issue 27

TEAM BUILDING EVENTS are in nature T&D events and therefore delegates would avoid the need to be taxed on the benefit of incentive trips provided that these include a TEAM BUILDING EVENTS. Furthermore, for some, it may make more sense and may be mach better the spirit of an incentive to include in its programme an “alternative” and in many cases fun training component such a TEAM BUILDING EVENTS, rather than a more work related meeting. Furthermore, one of the current trends in incentive travel programmes is centred upon “active not passive programmes, for example participating in an activity rather than merely watching it” (Carolyn Dow, 2001 President of Society of Incentive and Travel Executives (SITE), quoted in Rogers, 2003 p.54)

Destination Management Companies (DMCs)

For Davidson & Beulah (2003) DMCs are key intermediaries who operate separately from official authorities ‘‘whose strength lies in their extensive and detailed knowledge of the destination where the meetings event is to be held’ (p.114). Rogers (2003 p. 55) points out that such ‘‘specialist ground handlers’’ (p. 55) operate in the incentive travel market. However, goes on Rogers (2003 p.55) they may also provide services to conferences organizers, especially when a meeting conference or similar event is being organized overseas. The services they provide range from finding accommodation for delegates or organizing all grounds of local transport arrangements to suggest exciting pre-conference and post-conference tours and excursions; (Davidson & Beulah, 2003 p.114). DMCs often work in collaboration or partnership with PCOs or meeting planners who have been given responsibility for the overall organisation of the event (Davidson & Beulah, 2003 p.114).

The underlying rational, therefore, to include DMCs among the range of potential stakeholders of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS may be the result of combining that previously put forward for Incentive Travel Houses and PCOs respectively.

Intermediaries working on behalf of suppliers


    ‘‘To reach, maintain, defend their competitive position on the global market, tourist destinations need to use methods and tools that guarantee the management of a destination in the future in terms of quality, value and sustainability’’
Pechlaner & Abfalter (2005, p.43)

In this framework, organizations such as DMOs and NTOs play a decisive role. Destination marketing is undertaken at both, local and national levels- that is, DMOs representing cities or counties, for example and national tourism organizations (NTOs) representing nations (Rogers, 2003 p. 108).

Destination Marketing Organizations (DMO)
   
    “A number of organisations exist at various geographical scales to bring destinations to the attention of potential buyers and the intermediaries working on their behalf. With titles such as convention and visitor bureau, convention bureau or conference desk, these organisations represent the destination in the market place, offering buyers a one-stop enquiry point” Davidson & Beulah (2003, p.117)

NTOs may ‘hold a stake’ in TEAM BUILDING EVENTS as these agencies aim to both offer a one-stop enquiry point and bring destinations to the attention of potential buyers and the intermediaries working on their behalf. Therefore, it makes a good marketing and operational sense for NTOs to establish partnerships with providers of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS so as to be able to offer an enhanced one-stop enquiry point; and take full advantage of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS as Event Tourism resources by integrating these in the destination marketing strategies.

National tourist organizations (NTOs)

As Rogers (2003) points out, most countries in the world now have ‘‘some form of NTO, publicly funded, established for promotional activities to the international tourism industry’’ (p. 60).

    ‘‘As well as promoting their countries to the leisure market, many NTOs also target business tourism buyers and intermediaries’’ Davidson & Beulah (2003, p.117)

The underlying rational, therefore, to include NTOs among the range of potential stakeholders of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS is analogous to that previously put forward to DMOs. Furthermore, as observed by Getz (1997):

    “Even if the events are not powerful enough in their own right to attract international tourists, they can be an important part of promoting the destination as a whole, and in the offering of touring packages” (p. 55)

RECOMMENDATIONS: EVENT MARKETING AND EVENT DEVELOPMENT


The study, as stated in Chapter 1, aims to make practical recommendations that may inform and stimulate organizers of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS in the process of a sustainable development and marketing of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS for tourism consumption 

EVENT MARKETING

Introduction

The study recommends bodies charged with Event Tourism marketing and development at a destination to undertake a situational analysis (Chapter 2) and integrate if relevant, TEAM BUILDING EVENTS in the complete portfolio of events and related services of a destination. This may help destinations to compete in marketing related processes such as bidding processes for major events such as conferences, attracting minor events or shaping in general a destination’s tourism attractiveness.

As discussed in Chapter 2, “adding value to major attractions” is a valid Event Tourism generic strategy (Getz 1997, pp. 103-105). That is, according to Allen et al. (2005) “to incorporate smaller events into larger events to add to their uniqueness and subsequent tourism appeal” (p.65). It makes a good marketing sense to market TEAM BUILDING EVENTS around the ‘theming’ that surrounds major attractions i.e. meetings and conventions within the destination so as to ‘add value’ and help towards shaping a destination’s positioning strategy (Getz 1997, p. 103).

Stating the related outcome goal for TEAM BUILDING EVENTS within a destination’s strategy as well as making clear the process by which the goals can be achieved is an essential assignment (Chapter 2, Table G.2). This should be undertaken for the organizations charged with Event Tourism marketing and development within a destination in close collaboration with TEAM BUILDING EVENTS organisers. Category 1 shows a classification of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS which integrates both supply and demand parameters that may be of value according to Getz (1997) in the “planning” and “marketing” processes (p. 110)
Ultimately, it would be good for TEAM BUILDING EVENTS organizers and Trade associations to have regular round table meetings with bodies charged with Event Tourism development at a destination in order to synchronise, fit TEAM BUILDING EVENTS into long term strategies and overall marketing goals.

Marketing policy
   
    “Individual events benefit greatly when destination strategies and policies exist to help them realize their tourism potential through communications, packaging, and other forms of assistance and cooperation.’’

Getz (1997 p.100)

Within the context of the UK, policy to help events realize their full potential does exist. This study identified generically (Chapters 2 and 5) relevant organizations concerned with Event Tourism marketing and development. Table G.1 as discussed in Chapter 2 shows a full range of actions to implement strategies that such organizations might engage. Among such actions, TEAM BUILDING EVENTS may benefit particularly from ‘destination promotion services’ such as ‘marketing collateral’, providing information to organisations seeking to conduct events on a destination’s event-related facilities and services etc.

Touring packages

    ‘‘Even if the events are not powerful enough in their own right to attract international tourists, they can be an important part of promoting the destination as a whole, and in the offering of touring packages.’’

Getz (1997 p.55)

Getz (1997) concludes that in a destination’s events portfolio “there is much scope for packaging special events around conferences, meetings and expositions” (p.56). TEAM BUILDING EVENTS as described in this thesis may be used a tool to meet a range of organizational needs (Category 2), some of which may arise during the course of a MICE event.
It makes, therefore, a good marketing sense to package TEAM BUILDING EVENTS around conferences, meetings, expositions and incentive trips.

Implications for the Team Building Events market

Ultimately, TEAM BUILDING EVENTS organisers may benefit from marketing their events for tourism consumption so as to overcome the periods of least activity within the TEAM BUILDING EVENTS market itself. That is in this context, for conference organizers, meeting planners and particular agencies intermediaries of the MICE industry which undertake a buying role on behalf of their clients.

EVENT DEVELOPMENT

Briefs & budgets

As is shown Category 2 of the findings, TEAM BUILDING EVENTS need to be developed and managed to achieve the specific objectives that have been previously shaped and agreed between both client and event organiser. Yet, Team building Event organisers need to do so whilst providing innovative programmes and delivering creative events within budget for their clients (Category 2)

From a provider perspective, it is very difficult to assemble an event that meet such demands unless they are given a thorough brief of what is to be achieved, a realistic budget to make such creativity possible, and a destination that can do full justice to creative ideas. Particularly important for the development of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS for tourism consumption is the latter of such issues, the ‘destination’ and venue.

Venue & destination


Providers of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS may find it extremely advantageous to create powerful partnerships with unique venues or settings within destinations to enhance their event proposals. This would also contribute to the smooth running of the event as permission would be easily granted and other operational aspects would be addressed in advance. Thereby, event organisers would be able to deliver within tighter deadlines (Category 2).

Events developed and marketed for tourism consumption should capitalize on whatever natural appeal the destination presents (Getz, 1997 p.43). Therefore, built heritage, historic sites and environmental attractions are important in suggesting event venues. Furthermore, events could be easily ‘themed’ around those (Getz 1997, p. 103). A destination’s heritage should, therefore be examined as to its potential for hosting TEAM BUILDING EVENTS in addition to the traditional venues such as hotel facilities (i.e. rooms, lawn), conference rooms, forests, old castles, big houses, the city centre etc.
Unique experiences

For those organizing a conference or incentive trip, one way to make sure that those are as successful as possible is to give delegates and participants a “pleasant, positive experience of the destination in which the event is being held” (Rogers 2003, p.24). Therefore, if providers of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS want to be used as Event Tourism resources by DMCs, PCOs and other agencies intermediaries of the MICE industry, they need to adapt their events to meet such expectations.

That is, in addition to what have been already discussed, TEAM BUILDING EVENTS need to provide an experience that will give the participants an insight into a country or region that will be beyond the reach of the normal visitor or holidaymaker.

The leisure factor

Team building Event organisers may benefit from empowering the leisure factor of the events whenever this is feasible and consistent with the learning process. Chapter 2 provided an insight into the learning process in TEAM BUILDING EVENTS. Dainty and Lucas (1992) cited in Brown (2003 p.30) suggested that EL activities should be sequenced, “starting with fun and enjoyment” (Figure 2.4). Therefore, existing criticisms to this recommendation arising from inconsistencies between fun and enjoyment with the learning process in TEAM BUILDING EVENTS may be not thoroughly documented.  As shows Category 1 of the findings, TEAM BUILDING EVENTS are typically but not necessarily leisure events (i.e. featuring fun).

Event themes for tourism consumption 

To quote Getz (1997) in this context “consideration of cultural uniqueness and authenticity is important” (p.107). Many TEAM BUILDING EVENTS might be derived from the cultural makeup of communities, including their history, ethnicity, traditions, folklore (Getz 1997 p.107) and historic or cultural sites incorporating for instance ‘living history interactive events’.
Generalizing, along the same lines suggested by the DTB (Danish Tourist Board) cited in Allen et al. (2005, p.63-64) this study recommends organisers of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS to be mindful of the need to develop events that could reinforce the uniqueness of the destination culture, sporting opportunities, historic traditions and the uniqueness of the natural environment. The study equally suggest TEAM BUILDING EVENTS to take full advantage of whatever natural appeal the destination presents, such as summer and winter sports, seasonal food and produce, scenery or wildlife viewed in different places and under changing conditions. In order to help towards overcoming seasonality problems, as stated by Getz (1997) TEAM BUILDING EVENTS should capitalize on “whatever natural appeal the off-season presents” (p.53)

Sustainable development through Quality tourism

    ‘‘To reach, maintain, defend their competitive position on the global market, tourist destinations need to use methods and tools that guarantee the management of a destination in the future in terms of quality, value and sustainability’’
Pechlaner & Abfalter (2005, p.43)

Provided that TEAM BUILDING EVENTS are strategically marketed and successfully developed and managed for Quality tourism consumption, TEAM BUILDING EVENTS may be helpful in pursuing a policy that fosters and supports a sustainable development of the tourism industry. To do so, relevant criteria on sustainable development through Quality tourism should be met.
The criteria emanating from the World Tourism Organization (1994) on the topic were previously reviewed in Chapter 2 and will be now compared with the findings of this study. Indeed, a number of such criteria are consistent with the nature or general practice with TEAM BUILDING EVENTS.
TEAM BUILDING EVENTS comply with some requirements of Quality tourism as their participants i.e. event tourists:

•    Firstly, travel mostly in the low demand periods and are amenable to off-season packaging (Category 1).
•    Secondly, participants of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS visit an area to attend a particular attraction within such destination, which may be said it is “other form” of cultural and environmental experience.
•    Thirdly, tolerate high levels of visitor management. As argued by Robson (2003) for conference delegates, Team building event participants:
   
    “…are together as a group, so that it is possible to inform and educate them about the local community in which their event is being held in order to maximize the enjoyment of their stay, but also to minimize any disruption and possible inconvenience to the local resident population” (p.24)

If TEAM BUILDING EVENTS are to be regarded as Quality tourism and so contribute to the sustainable development of the host communities, attention must be paid to the following issues:

•    Firstly, make more efficient use of the existing supply i.e. do not necessarily require the development of new infrastructure but using more efficiently the existing one.
•    Secondly, be run by professionals who appreciate and respect the environment and host culture.
•    Thirdly, do not engage in destructive forms of behaviour.

In the experience of this researcher, the forgoing considerations are currently being observed by a good number of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS providers. Being this the case of a particular provider, this should equally consider the following issues as a general rule:

1.    Event organisers must focus on planning and managing the events so as to provide benefits directly to the local host communities: encourage longer stays and more local spending; generate local tax revenues; use local supply; create employment and business opportunities for locals Getz (1997, p.71)
2.    Events should engage in activities which foster and support environmental conservation, and ecologically responsible development of specific destinations whilst appreciating and respecting the host culture if they are to have the best chance of long term survival (Getz 1997, p.70)



CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSION

In this chapter the conclusions and implications drawn from the discussion of the main findings of this study will be stated.

The data illustrated that qualitative methods were an appropriate and effective way of investigating TEAM BUILDING EVENTS so as to capitalize on their value as Event Tourism resources. Research was required to determine in the first place the typology and nature of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS if these are to be developed and marketed for tourist consumption
As show the findings, a definition and typology of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS was effectively provided. The major needs, demands and benefits sought by TEAM BUILDING EVENTS participants and consumer organizations emerged from the data and were equally stated, examined and considered for purposes of improving overall event experience and make available relevant data to potential Event Tourism strategic planning processes.

The judgment of the findings against the literature showed the value of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS as Event Tourism resources. In this context, the following competences of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS were drawn from the discussion: capacity to assist overcoming seasonality problems of the tourism industry; capacity to attract overnight stays and increase the length of stay; capacity of delivering economic value and job creation; capacity to assist in shaping destination’s image and attract future investment.


It is concluded that a resource and supply appraisal process supported by a situational analysis must be undertaken at each destination. The situational analysis should reflect the various perspectives of key stakeholders in the event area- that is, tourism bodies, the destination’s community, government agencies, major event organisers, and providers of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS. This process should underpin the decisions made on whether or not TEAM BUILDING EVENTS are to be developed and marketed for tourism consumption and integrated, therefore in the complete portfolio of events and related services of each particular destination. The study provided an effective research input in support of such process.
It is also concluded that TEAM BUILDING EVENTS need to be developed and marketed for tourism consumption if they are to realize their full potential as Event Tourism resources or existing tourist attractions. In the light of the literature and the findings, recommendations have been made in order to illuminate such development and marketing processes respectively and help towards a sustainable development of the tourism industry.

As a final point, the findings and the literature illustrate the underlying rational for DMOs and NTOs to support the development of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS for tourism consumption. PCOs, DMCs and Incentive Travel Houses were also identified and considered as potential stakeholders of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS within the context of the Event Tourism industry.

IMPLICATIONS AND APPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY


Tangible, beneficial outcomes from this study include; a theory i.e. conceptual framework of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS grounded in the perceptions of event organisers, consumers and participants of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS in the UK; awareness of the value of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS as Event Tourism resources that may assist in the process of Event Tourism resource and supply appraisal; a set of practical recommendations to assist in the process of developing and marketing TEAM BUILDING EVENTS for tourism consumption.

The implication of the study for the field of Event Tourism is the discovery of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS as an Event Tourism resource, which may contribute to advance the field of Event Tourism.



CHAPTER 6: THE LAST WORD

This study is based on the belief that different perspectives on events require different management approaches and the recognition of the interrelatedness of all these perspectives can enhance event production, marketing and impacts. May the study inform and stimulate Event Tourism planners or marketers, as well as TEAM BUILDING EVENTS organisers to a positive and more sustainable development of the tourism industry that appreciate and respect the destinations’ host cultures.


BIBlIOGRAPHY

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Allen, J., O’Toole, W., Harris, R., McDonnell, I. and Strokes, R. (2005) Festival
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APPENDIX A: BACKGROUND TO EVENT TOURISM

The broad division of tourism into the two sectors of business tourism and leisure tourism as shows Figure 1 (Rogers, 2003; Davidson 1994; Davidson & Beulah, 2003) becomes blurred and it is not clear-cut.

figure_A1.jpg










Figure A1. A broad division of tourism and business tourism Diego (2006) according to Rogers (2003)

BUSINESS TOURISM

    “The World Tourism Organization’s (WTO) official definition of tourism, suggests that people travelling for business or professional purposes can also be considered tourists” World Tourism Organization (1993) quoted in Davidson & Beulah (2003)

Tony Rogers goes on to report that “business tourism and leisure tourism rely on the same, or a very similar, infrastructure to take place successfully’ (Rogers, 2003 p.22). Both sectors need accommodation; transport and communications; leisure, cultural and entertainment assets; shopping areas; information and advisory services; emergency medical services; a safe and secure environment, etc. Furthermore, “business tourism, in particular, can involve a substantial leisure element” (Davidson 1994 quoted in Rogers 2003 p.22).

For this reason, bidding destinations sell the concept of ‘destination’ and place great emphasis on everything from leisure, cultural and entertainment assets, to shopping, sports and dining options (Rogers, 2003 p.22). To quote Rogers (2003) himself:

    “A business tourist is a traveller whose main purpose for travelling is to attend an activity or event associated with his/her business or interests”
 (p. 20)
    “Conferences, exhibitions and trade fairs, incentive travel and corporate events (sometimes referred as corporate hospitality) are the four business tourism sectors that are the prime focus of marketing activities by venues and destinations because decisions about where the events take place are open to influence” (p. 20)

The above argument is also supported by Davidson & Beulah (2003 p.4). The organizers of the event may have great flexibility in deciding where it is to be held, and are able to use their own judgment or discretion. For this reason, these four business tourism sectors are sometimes described as discretionary (Rogers 2003 p. 20; Davidson & Beulah, 2003 p.4)

CULTURAL TOURISM

    “Existing tourism literature provides a wide range of definitions in the field of cultural tourism, but there is no consensus” Pechlaner & Abfalter (2005, p.42)

The World Tourism Organization has provided a definition of cultural tourism, focussing on the travel motivations of tourist:

    “Cultural tourism includes movements of persons for essentially cultural motivations such as study tours, performing arts and other cultural events, visit to sites and monuments, travel to study nature, folklore or art pilgrimages” World Tourism Organization (1985, p.3) quoted in Christou (2005, p. 7)

Likewise, the European Association for Tourism and Leisure Studies (ATLAS) has suggested a working definition of Cultural tourism, in two parts:

    Conceptual definition: “The movement of persons to cultural attractions away from their normal place of residence, with the intention to gather new information and experiences to satisfy their cultural needs”
    Technical definition: “All movements of persons to specific cultural attractions, such as heritage sites, artistic and cultural manifestations, arts and drama outside their normal place of residence”

ATLAS quoted in McDonnell & Burton (2005, p.17) and Richards (1996, p.24)



APPENDIX B: AGENCIES & INTERMEDIARIES IN THE EVENT INDUSTRY

INTRODUCTION

The structure of the Event Tourism industry and particularly the MICE industry within it may become puzzling and complex. Table B.2 shows the MICE matrix illustrating the segments which according to Rogers (2003) “make up, the business tourism sector” (p.23):

Meetings : An out-of-office meeting of at least 6 hours’ duration involving a minimum of 8 people. Includes sales meetings, training, board meetings and retreats, AGMs.

Incentive travel : A business tourism trip to motivate and reward employees and dealers, usually containing a conference element.


Conferences : Typically 1 or 2 days’ duration with a formal programme that has been promoted in advance. Delegates are often compelled to attend.

Exhibitions : Product launches, attendance as an exhibitor at trade and consumer shows organized by specialist exhibition organizers or trade associations. Also attendance as a corporate visitor (‘buyer’) at trade shows.

Corporate events
(previously Known as corporate hospitality) : Hosted entertainment at major sporting events, concerts and other high-profile functions, and/or participation in sporting or outdoor pursuits-type activities



Table B1 “MICE matrix
 -illustrating the segments which make up the business tourism sector”
 Rogers (2003 p.23)

    ‘‘Agency is a generic term used to describe a range of different organizations that are both suppliers and buyers. They undertake a buying role on behalf of their clients, who may be companies or associations. They act as intermediaries or middle-men, and can be contracted to assist in the planning and running of a conference or similar event.’’ Rogers (2003 p. 50)
Meeting, conference or similar event planners could either be employees of the buyer agency i.e. company or association, or they could be intermediaries- employees of agencies specialised in organising such events on behalf of clients (Davidson & Beulah, 2003 pp.113-114). These intermediaries who ‘‘undertake a buying role on behalf of their clients’’ (Rogers, 2003 p. 50; Davidson & Beulah, 2003 pp.113-114) may be companies, associations or any other type of initiator of conferences, meetings or similar events (Rogers, 2003 p. 50; Davidson & Beulah, 2003 pp.113-114). Such event planners represent one type of intermediary: those working on behalf of the buyers. But there is another type of intermediary: those working on behalf of the suppliers, in the sense of the destinations and venues where such events are held (Davidson & Beulah, 2003 pp.113-114).

INTERMEDIARIES WORKING ON BEHALF OF BUYERS

According to Davidson & Beulah (2003 p.114) travel agencies, tour operators, hotels, public relations companies, and production houses are among the many types of agencies that will occasionally undertake the task of finding a venue and planning all or part of the event on behalf of the client. In this section, however, only those intermediaries and agencies that actually specialise in planning meetings will be examined.

Professional Conference Organizers (PCOs)

    “The PCO acts as the project manager for the whole event, as well as, from time to time, a consultant advising on aspects such as communications techniques, marketing and public relations, tax and insurance’’
Davidson & Beulah (2003 p.114) 

The range of services offered by a PCO can extend to ‘‘as little or as much as the client requires’’ Davidson & Beulah (2003 p.114-115): venue selection, booking and liaison; event marketing; assistance to conference bids; finance consultancy (pre-finance, sponsorship, exhibitions, loans, registration fees); arranging social events etc (Rogers, 2003 p. 50-51; Davidson & Beulah, 2003 p.114-115). In the UK, the Association of British Professional Conference Organizers (ABPCO), ‘‘works towards increasing standards of professionalism throughout the meetings industry, as well as towards increasing the volume and value of the business being won by its members through a range of marketing activities’’ Davidson & Beulah (2003 p.115) 

Destination Management Companies (DMCs)

For Davidson & Beulah (2003) DMCs, or ground handlers, generally based at the destination where the event is to take place, are key intermediaries who operate separately from official authorities ‘‘whose strength lies in their extensive and detailed knowledge of the destination where the meetings event is to be held’ (p.114). Rogers (2003 p. 55) points out that such ‘‘specialist ground handlers’’ (p. 55) operate in the incentive travel market. However, goes on Rogers (2003 p.55) they may also provide services to conferences organizers, especially when a meeting conference or similar event is being organized overseas.

    “A DMC is a local service organization that provides consulting services, creative events and exemplary management of logistics based on an in-depth knowledge of the destination and the needs of the incentive and motivation markets’’
Rogers (2003 p.55)

The services they provide range from finding accommodation for delegates or organizing all grounds of local transport arrangements to suggest exciting pre-conference and post-conference tours and excursions; ‘‘in short take care of all local arrangements essential to the success of the event’’ (Davidson & Beulah, 2003 p.114).

    ‘‘DMCs are expected to develop tailor-made programmes within budget for their clients. They need to be innovative, and provide an experience that will give the participants an insight into a country or region that will be beyond the reach of the normal visitor or holidaymaker’’
Rogers (2003 p. 56)
DMCs often work in collaboration or partnership with PCOs or meeting planners who have been given responsibility for the overall organisation of the event (Davidson & Beulah, 2003 p.114).

Incentive Travel Houses

The specialized nature of the incentive sector has led to the growth of specialized agencies in the field, generally known as Incentive Travel Houses (Rogers 2003, p.52-54). Incentive Travel Houses are, therefore, specialized providers of Incentive Travel as a management tool used to motivate and/or recognize participants for increased levels of performance in support of the organizational goals (Rogers, 2003).

The Incentive Travel and Meetings Association (ITMA) is the trade association for companies involved in the organization of corporate events, including meetings, product launches and travel incentives (Rogers, 2003 p.231-232)
It was funded as the Incentive Travel Association for the UK in 1985, changing to ITMA in 1991. Another association in the sector is the Society of Incentive and Travel Executives (SITE) “Founded in 1973, the SITE is a worldwide organization of business professionals dedicated to the recognition and development of motivational and performance improvement strategies of which travel is a key component.” Rogers (2003 p. 238)

INTERMEDIARIES WORKING ON BEHALF OF SUPPLIERS

The tourism destination comprises a number of elements that combine to attract visitors (Pechlaner & Abfalter, 2005) yet, go on Pechlaner & Abfalter, it is nevertheless true that ‘‘destinations are the real competitive factors within the tourism industry’’ (p.43).

    ‘‘Although the factors that attract tourists to a destination in the first place may vary, it is important to note that the actual product they are experiencing is a place, a town, a city or a country.’’
Pechlaner & Abfalter (2005, p.43)
Rogers (2003) states ‘‘Buyers purchase location first and foremost’’ (p.106). Along the same lines Davidson & Beulah (2003) observes the ‘‘the tendency for buyers to consider individual venues only after they have first chosen the destination for their event’’ (p.117). Hence, go on Davidson & Beulah (2003) ‘‘suppliers such as conference centres and hotels must ensure that the countries and cities in which they are located are presented prominently and positively in the meetings market’’ (p.117).

    ‘‘To reach, maintain, defend their competitive position on the global market, tourist destinations need to use methods and tools that guarantee the management of a destination in the future in terms of quality, value and sustainability’’
Pechlaner & Abfalter (2005, p.43)

In this framework, organizations such as DMOs and NTOs play a decisive role. Destination marketing is undertaken at both, local and national levels- that is, DMOs representing cities or counties, for example and national tourism organizations (NTOs) representing nations (Rogers, 2003 p. 108).

Destination Marketing Organizations (DMO)

With this respect, Davidson & Beulah (2003, p.117) report:

    “A number of organisations exist at various geographical scales to bring destinations to the attention of potential buyers and the intermediaries working on their behalf. With titles such as convention and visitor bureau, convention bureau or conference desk, these organisations represent the destination in the market place, offering buyers a one-stop enquiry point” Davidson & Beulah (2003, p.117)

    “Convention and visitor bureaux provide a range of services, many free of charge, to conference organizers and meeting planners. They aim to offer a one-stop enquiry point for their destination, with impartial advice and assistance.’’ Rogers (2003 p. 111)
Davidson & Beulah (2003, p. 117) cite Tony Rogers, executive director of the British Association of Conferences Destinations who emphasises that the role of these intermediaries is to sell the destination, highlighting all its strengths and facilities, generating and converting enquiries into confirmed business. Rogers (2003) goes on to point out:

    ‘‘[DMOs in the UK] are set up as not-for-profit organizations, controlled by a management board, to fulfil a strategic management role and be the ‘official’ voice of the destination they represent’’
Rogers (2003 p.108)

Many cities and regions have created destination marketing services. For example, Davidson & Beulah (2003 p. 118) quote the 1999 survey of the Meetings Industry Association (MIA), which found that 82% of UK local tourists authorities had established dedicated conference marketing organisations.
As mentioned at the beginning of this epigraph, these organisations are most commonly known as convention bureaux (Davidson & Beulah 2003, p. 119). The former authors quote Greaves (1998 p.38) describing UK convention bureaux:
    ‘‘The overwhelming majority of convention bureaux now offer a wide range of services, including suggesting conference venues and incentive ideas, making hotel reservations, recommending restaurants, sending out destination manuals and organising familiarisation trips for both agents and corporate buyers. Two-thirds also promote their services and destinations on a dedicated web site.’’

Greaves, S (1998) ‘Competing for business’. Conference and Incentive Travel, September; quoted in Davidson & Beulah (2003 p. 119)

As a current example within the UK, the Scottish Tourist Board (STB) through the Visit Scotland Business Tourism Unit (BTU) releases a seasonal Visit Scotland Business Tourism Newsletter which is available at http://www.conventionscotland.com offering a wide range of services, including suggesting conference venues and incentive ideas, making hotel reservations, recommending restaurants and Team building Event services amongst others.

According to Davidson & Beulah (2003, p. 119), in Europe, local destination marketing has traditionally been undertaken directly by local or regional governments. However, in most European countries it is commonly accepted that convention bureaux effectively depend on a ‘‘positive public and private sector partnership’’ (Davidson & Beulah, 2003 p.119; Rogers, 2003 p.108), underpinned by adequate public funding. In the UK, the Meetings Industry Association (MIA) whose 1999 survey is quoted in Davidson & Beulah (2003) estimates that ‘‘60% of the bureaux are joint public and private sector funded, while the rest are funded entirely by local government’’ (p.120).

Ultimately, Davidson & Beulah (2003) observe that although individual destinations are in competition with each other in the meetings market ‘‘most understand that they have common objectives and share concerns that can be best addressed through a cooperative and collaborative structure’’ (p.119).

In the UK, the Meetings Industry Association and the British Association of Conference Destinations whose executive director’s academic work has been largely studied and quoted throughout the literature review for this research, are amongst the most significant British associations of DMOs (Davidson & Beulah (2003, pp.120-121 y 274). For Europe, the European Federation of Conference Towns has members from 34 countries (Davidson & Beulah, 2003 pp.121).

National tourist organizations (NTOs)

As Rogers (2003) points out, most countries in the world now have ‘‘some form of NTO, publicly funded, established for promotional activities to the international tourism industry’’ (p. 60). Such bodies go on Rogers (2003) are ‘‘primarily concerned with marketing, but some may also fulfil a lobbying and representational role’’ (p.60).

    ‘‘As well as promoting their countries to the leisure market, many NTOs also target business tourism buyers and intermediaries’’ Davidson & Beulah (2003, p.117)

For Davidson & Beulah (2003) there is ‘‘clear evidence that a growing number of NTOs are putting more time and effort into marketing their countries as destinations for business tourism activities, often acting as the link between buyers and local convention bureaux or DMCs’’ (p.117). The NTOs with their specialised units operating within the UK are: the British Tourist Authority (BTA); VisitScotland and Scottish Convention Bureau (SCB); the Welsh Tourist Board (WTB) and Welsh Tourist Board Business Travel Unit.



APPENDIX C: EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING
INTRODUCTION

As argued in Chapter 4 the theory of Experiential Learning underpins TEAM BUILDING EVENTS.

Much writing about Experiential Learning uses a fluid vocabulary in which terms are used interchangeably and are not clearly defined. This research owns preference has been to follow the language used by the leaders and managers of Team building event companies, freelance providers and organizational buyers of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS interviewed as an essential part of the study. This approach to terminology is consistent with the approach taken by PhD Greenaway (1995 p.26) in his doctoral thesis who chose to adopt the usage of terminology typically followed by the managers he was interviewing.


As suggested by Brown (2003 p.8) there are a number of Experiential Learning theories, all involving circles. For Greenaway (1995 p.29) the model which dominates Experiential Learning theory is a four stage learning cycle, of which there are many versions. This research has found Kolb’s Experiential Learning cycle (Kolb, 1984) depicted in Figure 2.2 to be the most frequently quoted in the literature of Outdoor Management Development (OMD) (Brown, 2003 p.8) and also in the fields of both management development and development training (Greenaway, 1995 p.29). Furthermore, Loynes, (1990) cited in Martin (2003 p.17) argued that Outdoor Management Development (OMD), Professional Development Programmes (PDP) and Corporate Adventure Training (CAT) are based on Kolb’s (1984) Experiential Learning model.

Experiential Learning theory defines learning as:

    “The process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience. Knowledge results from the combination of grasping and transforming experience.” Kolb (1984, p.41) quoted in Brown (2003, p.8)

For Martin (2001 p.13) the use of Experiential Learning promotes active involvement and contrasts with the passive learning associated with traditional teacher-centred methods. Carver (1996) cited in Martin (2001 p.14) argued that experiential education can take place in a variety of settings, for example, wilderness based adventure, job training, survival training and art education. Bank (1994) cited in Martin (2001 p.14) relates to the subject indicating that experiential education can take place also in educational institutions: from preschool to graduate programmes at university. Martin (2001 p.13) cited Miles and Priest (1990) to suggest that the experimentation, innovation and creativity of this field should occur as part of mainstream formal educational settings. The development of different types of experiential and outdoor training has also occasionally been associated with the military (Martin 2001 p.14). Dr. Greenaway (1995) defines Experiential Learning:

“Experiential Learning refers to all kinds of learning through experience whether structured or unstructured, intentional or unintentional” Greenaway (1995 p.29)

To quote Dr. Martin (2001)

“Experiential Learning is based on the belief that the process of personal growth occurs through change as a result of direct experiences. It is an active process involving the learner being placed in unfamiliar environments, outside their positions of comfort and into states of dissonance. This lack of harmony requires problem solving, inquiry and reflection” Martin (2001 p.12)

Kraft and Sakofs (1991), cited in Martin (2003 p.12) argued that “experiential activities should be real and meaningful providing natural consequences for the learner, for example, outdoor activities”. Krouwel (1994) also cited in Martin (2003 p.13) argued that the use of Experiential Learning, and in particular the outdoors, confronts people with the results of their own actions and provides important learning for life. Ewert (1996) cited in Martin (2003 p.13) also suggested that “for many experiential activities the natural environment is the medium through which program goals and objectives are realised” (p.29).

Brown (2003 p.34-35) cites Irvine and Wilson (1994) relating to OMD Experiential Learning based programmes to argue the following:

“The essential elements of OMD described in the literature are not exclusive to the Outdoors, the Outdoors does not need to be present in the equation, and in fact ‘too much outdoors’ (huge treks up mountains) may inhibit managerial learning” Brown (2003 p.34-35)

This realization, goes on Brown (2003 p.34-35), has encouraged many providers to practice the equivalent of OMD in conference rooms, and to move away from traditional outdoor activities. According to Beard and Wilson (2002 cited in Brown 2003 p.34-35) many providers feel that this approach gives them more focus and sophistication in meeting their clients needs. Some providers find that some features of Experiential Learning can be common to both indoor and outdoor settings (Greenaway, 1995). However as commented by Brown (2003 pp. 34-35) “conference rooms, balls, buckets, string and sticky tape can lack magic, emotion and spirit, when compared to a beautiful outdoor environment and some providers do combine the classroom”

THE EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING PROCESS

Experiential learning cycles

“Experiential Learning Cycles are models of learning sequences of two or more stages. All cycles include experiential and reflective processes” Greenaway (1995 p.29)

 


   
Figure 2.2 Kolb’s Experiential Learning Cycle
Kolb, D.A. (1984) in Brown (2003 p.8)

According to Kolb’s Experiential Learning cycle depicted in Figure 2.2, Brown (2003 p.8) argues that the Experiential Learning theory model portrays two dialectically related modes of grasping experience- Concrete Experience and Abstract Conceptualization; and two dialectically related modes of transforming experience- Reflective Observation and Active Experimentation. The four-stage learning cycle, goes on Brown (2003 p.8), suggests that immediate or Concrete Experiences are the basis for observations and reflections. These reflections are assimilated and distilled into abstract concepts from which new implications for action can be drawn (Brown 2003 p.8). These implications, concludes Brown (2003 p.8) can be actively tested and serve as guides when creating new experiences.

Along the same lines, and also according to Kolb’s Experiential Learning cycle depicted in Figure 2.2, Greenaway (1995 pp.25-26) argued that this model addresses two conflicts. First, the conflict between concrete experience and abstract concepts, and second the conflict between observation and action. For Greenaway (1995 pp. 25-26), the Kolb’s Experiential Learning cycle portrays that it is the resolution of these conflicts which results in learning.

Kolb’s Experiential Learning model is a process for continuous improvement and can be applied to any aspect of individual life and especially to organizations Brown (2003 p.11). For example, an organization’s members as part of a Team building event, may use the learning cycle to stop, reflect and observe what has happened in their team (for example, the interpersonal processes) during a particular Team building activity (the ‘Concrete Experience’ i.e. sailing). Subsequently, the team may develop general statements about what was effective or ineffective, often in terms of how different factors, for example how such interpersonal processes affected team performance and results. At this ‘Abstract Conceptualization’ stage they may compare their performance with theory inputs provided by the event facilitators on Team building and other H.R. and business theories developed by such gurus as Dr R, M. Belbin, Myers Briggs or Michael Porter. They may then move on to ‘Active Experimentation’ by testing new ways of working together, new management skills, new strategies with the objective of improving team performance. The daily activity, hopefully new activity, is the application of the revised thinking and planning into the ‘Concrete Experience’ of this Team building activity.

For Brown (2003 p.13) “Kolb’s theory does provide a useful and powerful planning, designing and thinking tool for trainers”. The former author, with regards facilitating Experiential Learning in the outdoors, goes on to argue that often trainers need to provide learners with (outdoor) skills to open the door to a learning experience.

Dainty and Lucas (1992) cited in Brown (2003 p.30) suggest that Experiential Learning activities should be sequenced, starting with fun and enjoyment, through narrow skills, broad skills to development (figure 2.4).
This model suggests that the learning of narrow skills such as sailing, camping and climbing are valid as part of Experiential Learning based activities, as long as they are built upon as the event or programme progresses to be utilized in broad skills such as a sailing trip or an excursion which can lead to development when supported by process reviewing (Brown, 2003 p.30).
Some narrow skills essential to participate in a Team building Experiential Learning based activity (-the broad skill) may be very straightforward (i.e. how to use a compass). This being the case, the activity may engage almost immediately with broad skills, thus making it easy for the participants to explore Team building requirements. However, if such narrow skills are found to be too difficult they can block the exploration in Experiential Learning based activities (Brown 2003 p.32) of for example effective Team building requirements for participants in the exercise.

Reviewing and transfer

To quote Greenaway (1992) “reviewing is an essential feature of experience-based learning”. Irvine and Wilson (1994, quoted in Brown, 2003) argued that “a review of the process used to achieve outcomes is essential to transfer” (p.34). Brown (2003) cites Krouwell and Goodwill (1992), Dainty and Lucas (1992) and Gass, (1990) to suggest that “participation in activities will not on its own lead to learning” (p.34).

“The main function of reviewing is to enable participants to learn from their experiences” Greenaway (1992)

Although, Greenaway (1995 quoted in Brown, 2003) with regards to experience-based learning in management and development found that:

“Experiences reported to have had affected managers’ learning and development, most were experiences that were full of meaning at the time and needed little processing to make them meaningful” Greenaway (1995) quoted in Brown (2003 P.34)

This goes on Brown (2003) “should point trainers towards enabling rich, varied, eventful experiences and away from providing shallow activities” (p.34)

It is recognized that humans do not change easily (Brown, 2003 p.32).

“Transfer is a very difficult issue and, despite being recognized as important, is seldom addressed well by trainers, participants and their managers, and is a key barrier for OMD (Rhodes, 2000 cited in Brown 2003 p.32) and any other form of training and learning”
 Brown (2003 p.32)

With regards to Experiential Learning based programmes such as OMD, Brown (2003 p.31) cited McEvoy and Buller (1997) and Krouwel & Goodwill, (1994) to state that a well run programme will begin by clarifying objectives with managers, participants and providers, in accordance to what is hoped will be transferred later. Likewise, Woodcock (1979) referring to “ground rules for team development” (p.32) and “guidelines for designing TEAM BUILDING EVENTS” (p.36) emphasizes the importance for facilitators of starting a Team building event by defining the objectives to be achieved and being clear about its aims.



APPENDIX D: EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING BASED TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES

INTRODUCTION


The study found a wealth of empirical research on Experiential Learning based T&D programmes in the specialised literature. There is a jungle of terms and acronyms which stand for this type of programmes: OMD, CAT, EBTD, OCT, PDP, Development Training, Adventure-Based Experiential Training and the various types of Outdoor Training- that is Adventure-based, Outdoor-centered and Wilderness programs. The above areas of knowledge have been identified by this research as the most direct antecedent to TEAM BUILDING EVENTS as described in the present study.

According to Dr Greenaway (1995, abstract) outside the UK, the equivalent terms for Outdoor Management Development (OMD) are Experience-Based T&D (EBTD) and Corporate Adventure Training (CAT).
As indicated by Donninson (2000, Chapter- What is OMD?) similar areas of practice to that of OMD have also many other labels such as Adventure-Based Experiential Training and Outdoor Training. Furthermore, there are several types of the latter used in the USA: Adventure-based, Outdoor-centered and Wilderness programs (Shivers-Blackwell, 2003 p. 615).

This study, although is set firmly in its European context, focuses geographically speaking on the UK. Therefore, since the research project deliberately undertakes an approach to the UK TEAM BUILDING EVENTS market, the terminology and areas of knowledge studied will be for practical reasons those commonly used in the UK. Furthermore, since it is beyond of the scope this thesis to explore the insights and particularities of each type of programme or area of knowledge mentioned, this research will now look in turn at OMD, Development Training, OCT and PDP rather than EBTD, CAT, Adventure-Based Experiential Training and the various types of Outdoor Training- that is Adventure-based, Outdoor-centered and Wilderness programs.

DEVELOPMENT TRAINING

To quote Dr Greenaway (1995) in his doctoral thesis:   

    “Development training is a form of Experiential Learning which is intensified by the use of challenging activities which are typically, but not necessarily, adventurous outdoor ones” Greenaway (1995, chapter 1.5, p.28)

    “When the participants [of Development training programmes] are managers, the approach is generally termed ‘outdoor management development’ (OMD)” Greenaway (1995 abstract)

OUTDOOR MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT (OMD)

“OMD is a set of carefully sequenced and integrated Experiential Learning activities conducted (primarily) in the outdoors and designed to facilitate participant behaviour change. Various Experiential Learning activities are used in OMD programmes, from river rafting and rock climbing to solving problems in teams with a variety of challenges (e.g. with all team members blindfolded). The activities are important only in the sense that they provide the vehicle for learning. The design, facilitation and debriefing of activities are the critical parts of the programme” McEvoy & Buller (1997) p.209

“Managers from diverse sectors of industry have participated [as part of OMD programmes] in a plethora of outdoor challenges such as bridge building exercises, climbing and overnight expeditions in the tacit belief that the learning generated from these outdoor challenges and experiences will improve subsequent work performance” Burke & Collins (2003 p.679)
 
Loynes, (1990) cited in Martin (2003 p.17) argued that Outdoor Management Development (OMD) is based on Kolb’s (1984) Experiential Learning model.
According to McEvoy & Buller (1997 p.209) there are multiple possible objectives in OMD programmes, including: personal development; manager development; organization development; and team development. For Collins (2003b p.715) typically, OMD programmes facilitate the development and transfer of a range of managerial skills and abilities including those of leadership, productive team-working, and group co-operation.

Burke & Collins (2003a) consider OMD is a “highly successful industry” (p.615). Businesses are investing hundreds of millions of dollars each year on outdoor management development (OMD) (Weaver, 1999 cited in Burke & Collins, 2003b p.715). In the UK in 1998, it was estimated that 550 million pounds a year were spent on courses” (p.679). Despite rapid expansion in provision of OMD (Burke & Collins, 2003 p.678), there remains a profound dearth of both empirical evidence and theoretical perspectives to support the value of OMD as Event Tourism resource or existing supply.

For Badger et al. (1997 p.319) the most direct antecedent of Outdoor Development is in the outward bound programmes run by the Outward Bound Trust, an organization that has been operating since 1941.

PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES (PDP)

Outdoor education courses have been developed for Masters of Business Administration (MBA) programmes and corporate settings (Bank, 1994 cited in Martin 2001, pp.16-17).

“The development of management training in the outdoors was based on the belief that by removing people from their normal environment and challenging them through mainly physical activities, reviewing what had happened, and then reflecting on the experience, would enable the skills learnt to be transferred back to the work place” Martin (2001 pp.16-17)

Loynes, (1990) cited in Martin (2003 p.17) argued that Professional Development Programmes (PDP) are based on Kolb’s (1984) Experiential Learning model.
Martin (2001 p.17) relates PDP and Outward Bound. Professional Development Programmes are also provided by Outward Bound which yield “a significant income for many of the schools” (Outward Bound International, 1997 cited in Martin 2003, p.17).

OUTWARD BOUND


Sakofs and Armstrong (1996 cited in Martin 2001 p.12) indicated that Outward Bound had played a significant role in the development of experiential education in the 20th century. Kurt Hahn’s philosophy “has influenced methods of training and learning for both outdoor education and Experiential Learning” (Martin 2001, p.40). Furthermore, for Brown (2003) “the modern concept of Experiential Learning has its roots in Outward Bound and its founder Kurt Hahn”. The philosophy of his founder Kurt Hahn was based on providing experiential education programmes that empowered young people to fulfil their potential (Stetson, 1996 cited in Martin 2001 p.3). Outward Bound is still based upon Hahn’s philosophy, as indicated in their mission statement:

Outward Bound’s mission statement:

“Outward Bound is a non-profit educational organisation created to stimulate personal development and generate understanding between people. This is achieved by impelling them out of familiar environments and setting new challenges through safe but demanding adventure experiences, which inspire responsibility, self-reliance, teamwork, confidence and community service”
Outward Bound International (1999, p.1) quoted in Martin (2001, p.3)

Stetson (1997 cited in Martin 2001 p. 39-40) pointed out that there were three values central to Hahn’s philosophy of education and the purpose of OB: to empower people to fulfil their own highest potential; to foster compassion; to develop courage.

OUTDOOR CHALLENGE TRAINING (OCT)

OCT was defined by Shivers-Blackwell (2003) as

“An Experiential Learning program that utilizes outdoor-centered challenge activities to foster the personal and professional development of organizational members by focusing on team development, leadership skills, decision making and awareness” (p. 615)

Outdoor challenge training (OCT) goes on Shivers-Blackwell (2003):

“[OCT] is believed by practitioners to be an effective human resource development strategy, particularly for enhancing one’s self-concept, leadership, supportive communication, problem solving, planning, promoting trust among coworkers, and Team building in work groups” (p. 614)



APPENDIX E: APPROACHES TO TEAM BUILDING
INTRODUCTION


According to Clark (1994) it is possible to classify existing approaches to Team building as emanating from one of the following orientations depicted in Table 3.1:
Approaches based on a particular model of team effectiveness.    This type goes “accounts for a great majority of the available literature” Clark (1994 p.29).                                       E.g.: John Adair whose landmark work Adair (1986) Effective Team building
Approaches based on a particular methodology.     E.g. :Outward Bound
Approaches based on a particular model of team effectiveness           and the use of a particular methodology.    E.g.: Dr R. Meredith Belbin whose popular approach to Team building was originally developed in his landmark work Belbin (1981) Management Teams. Why they succeed or fail.
“All sorts approach”     This approach “probably accounts for the vast majority of in-house Team building” Clark (1994 p.29). 

Table E.1 Approaches to Team building
 Clark (1994 pp.29-43)
It would not have been viable and/ or manageable for the scarce resources of this study to deal with every single existing approach to Team building. This research has examined instead the approaches and authors perceived to be central for Clark (1994) and for this research. Such approaches are shown as example guide in figure 3.1. Each of these approaches will be briefly discussed now in turn.

JOHN ADAIR AND DR. R. MEREDITH BELBIN

Dr R. Meredith Belbin’s landmark work Belbin (1981) Management Teams. Why they succeed or fail and Belbin (2002) Team Roles at Work were examined along with John Adair’s landmark work Adair (1986) Effective Team building.
This review certainly showed the applicability of such models in TEAM BUILDING EVENTS as they are described in this thesis. Such applicability is supported and stated further along in this thesis by a number of providers of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS interviewed for this study purposes. However, Belbin’s and Adair’s work are neither essential, nor explicative of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS as described in this study. Hence, for this thesis purposes Belbin’s and Adair’s work have no relevance and cannot be considered as previous research for this study research topic. 

ALL SORTS APPROACH


This approach “probably accounts for the vast majority of in-house Team building” Clark (1994 p.29). The use of the generic term “all sorts approach”, argues Clark (1994) is an attempt to distinguish these approaches from those, associated with the work of individuals or organizations such as Belbin, Adair, Outward Bound etc. which often “involve using particular providers or paying for copyright material” (p.29). Furthermore, goes on Clark (1994 p.29) what often underpin these programmes is trainers adapting “some or bits” of other approaches.
“Most trainers and many consultants, do not limit themselves to a particular approach, but develop one that they feel comfortable with. The actual programmes are usually an amalgam of underlying theory, not all of it internally consistent, and a mixture of methodology”
Clark (1995, p.34)

THE OUTDOOR TRAINING APPROACH TO TEAM BUILDING

To quote Clark (1994) with regards to the Outdoor Training approach to Team building:
     “There is a large and increasing number of suppliers who, whatever their differences, are united for the use of the outdoors as the method for learning” (p.31)
Clark (1994 pp.31-32) cited Mike Peckham (1993) to describe the outdoor training approach to TEAM BUILDING EVENTS. Outdoor training approaches to Team building may combine in general the use of the outdoors and task solving problems with reviews or the provision of meaningful learning opportunities combined with theory input and reviews (Mike Peckham, 1993 cited in Clark, 1994 pp.31-32).
According to Clark (1994) despite their best efforts, “the team is likely to be seduced by the task and will find it difficult to translate what it has learned so it can be used in the workplace” (p.32). Clark (1994) goes on to suggest the great advantage of the outdoor approach:
“The great advantage of the outdoor approach is the development of team spirit that occurs as a result of the achievement of the tasks. The development of skills at the group level is the greatest potential of the outdoor training approach to Team building”
Clark (1994, p.31)



APPENDIX F: LITERATURE SOURCES
INTRODUCTION

A broad search strategy was used to identify relevant literature from around the world relevant to the subject of study. A trail was followed through the literature on Event Management, Event Tourism, Experiential learning, Experiential learning based Training & Development programmes and Team building. Relevant articles that were cited in the most powerful and pertinent literature, and therefore accepted by the academic community, were studied. The Literature sources consulted in the literature search process are referenced below.

EVENT MANAGEMENT AND EVENT TOURISM

•    Highly regarded text books used by students of Masters Degrees in Events and Conference Management and Tourism respectively at Northumbria University and Newcastle University and most likely many more around the world.
•    The only research-based periodical in this field: Festival Management and Event Tourism. An International Journal. First published in 1997 by Cognizant Communication Corporation which became in 2001 Event Management. An International Journal

EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING, EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING BASED TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES AND TEAM BUILDING

•    Highly regarded research papers and PhD theses in the field of Experiential Learning applied to training programmes. Text books used by students in a range of interdisciplinary fields i.e. Human Resources Management, Organizational Development Management, Organizational Behavior, Psychology, Organizational Psychology, and Occupational Psychology at Universities primarily in the EU and USA but also around the world. 
•    The research-based periodicals in the field:

o    Journal of Management Development, first published by © MCB University Press and currently published by Emerald Group Publishing Limited
o    Journal of European Industrial published by Training © MCB University Press.
   


Northumbria University Library (Newcastle upon Tyne, England)


Newcastle University Library (Newcastle upon Tyne, England)

Table F.1 Library Sources. Diego (2006)



APPENDIX F: TABLES
INTRODUCTION


Financial support   
Grants, sponsorship, equity (i.e. direct investment)

Ownership   
Event Tourism bodies’ ownership of events to stimulate visitation to the destination

Bidding processes   
Bid development and bid support services


Event sector development services
    Research, training and education, partnerships and networks

Coordination    Events calendar, coordination between different government units etc






Event/
Destination promotion services   
Marketing collateral i.e. promotion and direct links from DMCs’ and other agencies’ web sites, brochure shells, giveaways, videos highlighting destination attractions and event facilities and services, posters etc.

Providing information to organisations seeking to conduct events on a destination’s event-related facilities and services.

Hosting familiarisation tours and site visits by event organising committees

Assisting with the preparation of event programmes and pre- and post event tours



Other   

Lobbying on behalf of the sector on various fields such as matters relating to new infrastructure development etc.


Table G.1 Implementation of an Event Tourism strategy
Diego (2006) Adapted from Allen et al. (2005 pp. 68-72)







Types of Event    Sample outcome goals   
Development requirements


Business Events:
Meetings & Conventions
Trade/consumer shows
   
•    Attract national and international guests
•    Stress off-peak times
•    Obtain spin-off economic benefits
•    Packages for longer stays   
•    Needs venues and promotions
•    Link to other events

Table G.2  Business Events in a Destinations’ Events Portfolio 
Extract from “A Destination Event Portfolio with sample Outcome Goals and Development Requirements” Getz (1997, p. 104)





Work and touristic motivations   
•    Travel in order to exercise work
•    Engage in tourist-related activities as a by-product of the excursion

Work characteristics   
•    Professional, official role, or business-related work
•    Repetitive, career-related work
•    Prestigious and well paid work
Demographic profile   
•    Middle- or upper middle-class adults

Table G.3 Travelling professional workers
Extracted from Uriely, N. (2001) ‘Travelling workers and working tourists: variations across the interaction between work and tourism’, International Journal of Tourism Research, Vol. 3, pp.1-8. © John Wiley & Sons Limited. Quoted in Davidson & Beulah (2003 p. 255)



HIGH







LOW   
Corporate hospitality; Incentive travel
Motivational conferences
Association conferences
Product launches
Consumer shows
Trade fairs; Corporate seminars
Short individual business trips


Table G.4  Business tourism: pleasure quotient
Davidson & Beulah (2003 p. 256)



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INTRODUCTION

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